L-threonine is an essential amino acid in human beings, indicating that it can not be manufactured in the body. The chemical formula for L-threonine is HO2CCH( NH2) CH( OH) CH3, and its DNA codons are ACA, ACC, ACG and ACU. L-threonine is among the 20 typical proteinogenic amino acids for human beings, which are used to construct proteins. It is likewise a polar amino acid and among the two proteinogenic amino acids which contain alcohol groups. The American nutritionist William Cumming Rose discovered threonine throughout the 1930s, making it the last of the typical proteinogenic amino acids to be discovered.

Threonine can be prepared in the laboratory by responding mercury acetate with crotonic acid. This procedure yields a racemic mixture of threonine, meaning that it produces both D-threonine and L-threonine. However, just L-threonine is biologically active for humans. Many plants and some microbes can manufacture L-threonine by utilizing homoserine and alpha-aspartyl-semialdehyde to produce aspartic acid. Aspartic acid can then be lowered to yield L-threonine. [2]

Mechanism of action

L-Threonine is a precursor to the amino acids glycine and serine. It functions as a lipotropic in controlling fat build-up in the liver. Might assist fight mental illness and may be extremely beneficial in indigestion and digestive malfunctions. Likewise, threonine prevents extreme liver fat. Nutrients are more readily taken in when threonine exists. [3]


L-Threonine promotes normal development by assisting to maintain the correct protein balance in the body. L-Threonine likewise supports cardiovascular, liver, main nervous, and body immune system function. Threonine is required to produce glycine and serine, 2 amino acids that are necessary for the production of collagen, elastin, and muscle tissue. Threonine assists keep connective tissues and muscles throughout the body strong and elastic, including the heart, where it is found in significant amounts. It also helps build strong bones and tooth enamel, and might speed injury healing or recovery from injury. Threonine combines with the amino acids aspartic acid and methionine to assist the liver with lipotropic function, or the food digestion of fats and fats. Without enough threonine in the body, fats might develop in the liver and ultimately trigger liver failure. Threonine supports the immune system by aiding in the production of antibodies. [4]

Food Sources

1. Turkey

A lump of protein-rich meat such as turkey is known to sufficiently supplement the body with threonine. In fact, it is widely credited to be among the wealthiest sources of threonine by the U.S Department of Health and Farming. An 85-gram serving of turkey is 1090 milligrams of threonine. This serving itself can provide you with 61 % of your threonine requires if you take place to be a male or 72 % your intake requires if you take place to be a woman.

% of Threonine in 100 gms: 100 %– 104 %.

2. Egg White Powder

With absolutely no hydrogenated fats or cholesterol, egg whites powder can be an excellent source of threonine. One can utilize egg white powder whilst baking as a two-tablespoon serving is understood to consist of 513 milligrams of threonine. This is 30 % of a male’s everyday threonine needs and 34 % of what a lady requires daily.

3. Soy Products

Vegans have yet another reason to rejoice over soy items as soy is understood to be an abundant source of threonine. A cup of raw soybeans is understood to consist of 3,000 milligrams of threonine. This is far above the everyday requirement of both males and females. Soy flour, soy milk, tofu and soy nuggets can likewise be contributed to our diet plan to supplement our threonine needs.

% of Threonine in 100 gms: 22 %.

4. Lean Beef

Lean beef is known to be an abundant source of threonine largely depending upon how it is cooked. The top loin of beef filet without bones when grilled is known to contain 2142 milligrams of threonine which makes beef a protein source par excellence for males, ladies and children.

% of Threonine in 100 gms: 134 %.

5. Chicken Breast

While chicken is commonplace meat in our daily diets, we are hardly aware that it is rich in threonine. One entire cooked chicken is known to include 137 % of threonine RDI. It likewise includes other important amino acids that are useful for guys, ladies and children.

% of Threonine in 100 gms: 112 %.

6. Parmesan Cheese

Parmesan is by far one of the world’s most popular varieties of cheese. The next time you have a takeaway pizza meal; do not feel as guilty as what you are consuming is not all junk. Parmesan is known to have 125 % of the threonine RDI.

% of Threonine in 100 gms: 125 %.

7. Pork

Be it bacon, salami or pork chops, pork is a rich source of threonine that is important for development and organ functions. Pork is understood to consist of 132 % of the threonine RDI. This is known to be one of the best Threonine rich foods and can be attained by utilizing Pork in a number of methods.

% of Threonine in 100 gms: 132 %.

8. Saltwater Fish

Here is another reason to take your household out to a seafood dining establishment as saltwater fish that is rich in Omega 3 fatty acids is likewise abundant sources of the amino acid threonine. Salmon is understood to consist of 122 % of the threonine RDI. It is likewise rich in lots of healthy nutrients to promote healthy wellness.

% of Threonine in 100 gms: 122 %.

9. White Beans

White beans are a benefit for vegans seeking to supplement their threonine needs. Apart from its lots of health advantages, white beans are understood to include 39 % of the threonine RDI. If you do not consume meat or eggs, white beans are a needs to on your plate.

% of Threonine in 100 gms: 39 %.

Now that you have actually seen this list of threonine rich foods, it’s time to include them in your diet. Threonine is of utmost significance to the body and like other amino acids is a crucial element. A complex system such as the human body needs a well-balanced diet plan to get in all the essential nutrients. By adding them to your everyday meal strategy, not only will you able to deal with Threonine shortages, but likewise prevent numerous hazardous conditions. [5]


In biochemistry, the term amino acid is frequently utilized to refer particularly to alpha amino acids– those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate groups are connected to the exact same carbon, the so-called α– carbon (alpha carbon). The general structure of these alpha amino acids is:.






where R represents a side chain specific to each amino acid.

The majority of amino acids happen in 2 possible optical isomers, called D and L. The L amino acids represent the large bulk of amino acids discovered in proteins. They are called proteinogenic amino acids. As the name “proteinogenic” (literally, protein building) recommends, these amino acid are encoded by the basic hereditary code and participate in the process of protein synthesis.

With two chiral centers, threonine can exist in four possible stereoisomers, or two possible diastereomers (not mirror images) of L-threonine. However, the name L-threonine is utilized for one single enantiomer, (2S, 3R) -2- amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid. This is the only form utilized in mammalian proteins. The 2nd diastereomer (TWO, THREE), which is rarely present in nature, is called L-allo-threonine. Stereoisomers are particles whose atomic connection is the same but whose atomic arrangement in space is different. Enantiomers are stereoisomers that are nonsuperposable complete mirror images of each other, much as one’s left and right-hand men are “the very same” however opposite.

Threonine has the chemical formula CH3-CH( OH)- CH( NH2)- COOH, or more usually, C4H9NO3.

Threonine, like serine, has a brief group ended with a hydroxyl group. The hydroxyl group connected makes it a polar amino acid. Its hydrogen is simple to eliminate, so threonine and serine frequently function as hydrogen donors in enzymes. Nevertheless, while serine has a reputation as being associated with catalytic functions in enzymes, such as in trypsin and chymotrypsin, threonine’s role is this regard is not settled. Both threonine and serine are really hydrophilic, therefore the external areas of soluble proteins tend to be rich with them.

The threonine residue (part) is vulnerable to numerous posttranslational adjustments. The hydroxy side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation (addition of saccharides). Furthermore, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation (addition of phosphate) through the action of a threonine kinase. In its phosphorylated form, it can be referred to as phosphothreonine. [6]


As a necessary amino acid, threonine is not synthesized in people, and requires to be present in proteins in the diet plan. Adult humans require about 20 mg/kg body weight/day. In plants and bacteria, threonine is manufactured from aspartic acid via α-aspartyl-semialdehyde and homoserine. Homoserine undergoes O-phosphorylation; this phosphate ester undergoes hydrolysis concomitant with moving of the OH group. Enzymes involved in a normal biosynthesis of threonine consist of:.

  • aspartokinase
  • β-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
  • homoserine dehydrogenase
  • homoserine kinase
  • threonine synthase


Threonine is metabolized in at least 3 methods:.

In many animals it is converted to pyruvate through threonine dehydrogenase. An intermediate in this pathway can go through thiolysis with CoA to produce acetyl-CoA and glycine.

In human beings the gene for threonine dehydrogenase is an inactive pseudogene, so threonine is transformed to α-ketobutyrate. The system of the first step is analogous to that catalyzed by serine dehydratase, and the serine and threonine dehydratase reactions are probably catalyzed by the exact same enzyme.

In numerous organisms it is O-phosphorylated by a kinase preparatory to additional metabolic process. This is particularly crucial in germs as part of the biosynthesis of cobalamin (Vitamin B12), as the product is transformed to (R) -1- aminopropan-2-ol for incorporation into the vitamin’s sidechain.

Threonine is used to synthesize glycine throughout the endogenous production of L-carnitine in the brain and liver of rats. [7]


1. Supports Digestive Health

Threonine secures the digestion tract by producing a mucus gel layer that covers it and functions as a barrier to harmful digestion enzymes. This essential amino acid also supports healthy gut function by promoting the protective effects of the gut mucus barrier.

According to research study released in Frontiers in Bioscience, a big percentage of dietary threonine is utilized for intestinal-mucosal protein synthesis. For this reason, consuming Thr foods might help to improve gut health under physiological and pathological conditions in both humans and animals.

2. Boosts Immune System

We require enough Thr to support proper immune function. The thymus gland utilizes the necessary amino acid to make T-cells, or T lymphocytes, that work to combat off infections inside the body.

Research study published in Cold Spring Harbor Viewpoints in Biology states that “serine/threonine kinases manage the epigenetic, transcriptional and metabolic programs that determine T-cell function.” Researchers explain that at a basic level, serine and threonine kinases work as a series of on/off switches that trigger antigen and cytokine receptors that make up the immune system.

3. May Improve Muscle Contractions

Although more research study is needed to even more comprehend its function, there is some proof that Thr might benefit signs of ALS, aka Lou Gehrig’s disease. Thr amino acid works to increase glycine levels in the main nerve system.

Glycine is used to deal with spasticity, which is why L-threonine has been assessed for its ability to enhance spasticity, or contracting muscles, in ALS clients.

In an evaluation performed in Australia, scientists discovered that a double-blind, placebo-controlled research study of oral L-threonine to deal with spinal spasticity indicates a modest antispasmodic impact. However, studies involving ALS clients reveal no improvements with L-thr treatment.

These mixed reviews suggest that utilizing L-threonine supplements might help in reducing contraction however might not be effective for ALS symptoms.

4. Supports Muscle and Bone Strength

Did you understand that collagen and elastin proteins need threonine for proper production? You may already know that collagen is the most plentiful protein in the body, and it’s discovered in our muscles, bones, skin, capillary, tendons and gastrointestinal system.

Due to the fact that Thr permits the production of collagen, it plays a crucial role in the health of your bones and muscles.

Research study carried out Texas A&M University shows that glycine from threonine, proline and hydroxyproline contributes to 57 percent of overall amino acids in collagen. Thr amino acid is a precursor to glycine, which is also used during the biosynthesis of creatine, offering muscles with a direct source of fuel to fix damage.

Threonine also allows for proper elastin function. Elastin is a protein that’s discovered in connective tissue and lets the skin, tendons and ligaments resume shape after extending or contracting.

5. Helps Prevent Fatty Liver

Thr amino acid prevents fat accumulation in the liver. It does this by managing fat metabolic process and facilitating lipotropic function.

Liptropic compounds work to break down fat throughout metabolic process, and without the amino acids threonine, methionine and aspartic acid, this would not be possible. Threonine deficiency can result in fatty liver and even liver failure.

An animal study released in the American Journal of Physiology found that Thr-deficient diet plans increase mitochondrial uncoupling in the liver. This suggests that diet plans lacking quality protein foods that provide necessary amino acids can cause cell malfunction and the accumulation of fats in the liver.

6. May Alleviate Stress And Anxiety and Mild Depression

Studies shows that alternations in serum levels of amino acids, including serine and glycine, which require Thr for production, are linked to significant depression. Scientists in Belgium found that modifications in levels of threonine, aspartate, asparagine and serine may forecast a patient’s reaction to treatment with antidepressants by regulating amino acid levels in the body.

Because Thr is a precursor to glycine, which helps calm nerves and support cognitive health, it’s often utilized as a supplement to eliminate indications of anxiety and depression. Glycine is likewise understood for its ability to help improve sleep, mental performance, state of mind and memory.

7. Accelerates Injury Recovery

Threonine is required for the correct production of collagen, which is required for connective tissue formation and injury recovery.

Research reveals that after experiencing burns or injury, individuals have higher urinary spill of threonine. This shows that the amino acid is metabolized from body tissues after an injury.

Increasing your consumption of Thr through amino acid T foods or supplements may help speed healing of injuries, burns and other types of injury.

Shortage Signs and Triggers

Threonine shortage is rare, as many people get enough of the amino acid in the foods they eat. Nevertheless, people with an unbalanced diet, vegans and vegetarians, might not take in sufficient threonine foods, which can trigger low levels of the amino acid.

Thr deficiency may cause the following symptoms:.

  • digestive problems
  • irritability or psychological agitation
  • confusion
  • increased liver fat
  • bad nutrient absorption [8]

L-Threonine Supplements

The usual dose is between 100-500 mg daily. As much as three 500 mg pills can be taken in one day if needed. Magnesium, vitamin B6 and niacin are also required in addition to the threonine in order to synthesize non-essential amino acids consisting of serine and glycine. [9]

Adverse effects

When taken by mouth: Threonine is LIKELY SAFE when utilized in food amounts. It’s been proposed that individuals need to get about 0.5 to 1 gram of threonine from their diet plan per day. This quantity is thought about to be safe. Threonine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used as a medication. Doses of up to 4 grams of threonine daily have been utilized securely for up to 12 months. Some people experience minor negative effects such as indigestion, headache, queasiness, and skin rash.

Special Preventative Measures and Warnings

When taken by mouth: Threonine is LIKELY SAFE when used in food amounts. It’s been proposed that people need to get about 0.5 to 1 gram of threonine from their diet per day. This amount is thought about to be safe. Threonine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used as a medicine. Dosages of as much as 4 grams of threonine daily have actually been utilized safely for as much as 12 months. Some individuals experience small adverse effects such as stomach upset, headache, nausea, and skin rash. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn’t adequate trusted info to understand if threonine is safe to utilize when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and prevent use.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease): There is some issue that threonine might decrease lung function in patients with ALS. In one study, ALS clients taking 1 gram of threonine four times each day for 6 months had actually significantly lowered lung function compared to patients who did not get threonine. More evidence is required to figure out if threonine was actually at fault. [10]


Medications utilized for Alzheimer’s illness (NMDA villains) Interaction Rating: Significant Do not take this combination.

There is some concern that threonine may reduce how well a medication used for Alzheimer’s illness works. This medication is called memantine (Namenda). [11]

The Bottom Line

Amino acids are important to your general health and health and wellbeing. Without them, immunity reduces, digestion issues develop, depression heightens, and more (.

Threonine, in particular, is a necessary amino acid that plays an essential function in metabolizing crucial nutrients, maintaining gut health, and promoting premium sleep. Due to the fact that threonine is an “necessary” amino acid, it should be acquired from foods like pasture-raised chicken, almonds, and hemp seeds or a dietary supplement like grass-fed collagen powder.

Depending upon your age, gender, and state of health, threonine dosage can differ from 400 to over 1,000 milligrams. To guarantee you’re consuming sufficient amounts of this necessary amino acid, eat a whole food diet plan abundant in protein and collagen. [12]
threonine thrē ´ ənēn [essential], organic substance, one of the 22 α-amino acids typically found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. It is one of a number of important amino acids needed in the diet plan; humans can not synthesize it from easier metabolites. Young adults need about 14 mg of this amino acid per day per kg (6 mg per pound) of body weight. Although threonine takes part in lots of responses in germs, including the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 and isoleucine, its metabolic function in higher animals, consisting of male, stays odd. It is known only as a constituent of proteins, and even because form it is reasonably unreactive. In spite of the fact that its side chain has a hydroxyl group comparable to that of serine, there is no indication that it participates in the catalytic functions of any enzyme. Threonine was isolated from the protein fibrin in 1935 and manufactured in the exact same year. [13]


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