Spirulina is a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be taken in by humans and animals. The 3 species are arthrospira platensis, a. Fusiformis, and a. Maxima.

Cultivated around the world, arthrospira is utilized as a dietary supplement or entire food. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, fish tank, and poultry industries.


The extremely dietary and ecofriendly spirulina (arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains practical compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating results. Studies performed on spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy topics, however attitude to consuming probably affects the acceptability of spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of spirulina is verified by the intervention research studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, needs more confirmation in human beings. Spirulina supplements appear to impact better the natural immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes’ proliferation depend on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, aging and weight problems are both associated with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have been reported in vitro, recommending that the association of spirulina and probiotics could represent a new method to improve the growth of helpful digestive tract microbiota. Although spirulina may represent a practical food with potential beneficial results on human health, the human interventions utilized only supplements. For that reason, the effect of food containing spirulina ought to be examined in the future. (2 ).


Spirulina, likewise known asarthrospira platensis, is a blue microalga that grows in alkaline fresh water and at heats. Initially by fao, in 2008 and then by the un, in 2011, the incredibly food of the future for sustainability, efficiency of nutrients and for the numerous useful qualities it possesses.

Food is history, it is culture, it is custom and spirulina, as food, brings with it a history, a culture and a custom that are lost in the mists of time.

It is over three billion years of ages and is one of the oldest foods in the world.

It initially grew in america and africa, more specifically in lake texcoco in mexico and lake chad in north-central africa.

The first reliable historic documents on making use of this alga originated from the statement of thei conquistadors spaniards, firstly cortés who, following the intrusion and conquest of the aztec individuals from 1519-1525, reported having actually discovered a green food, served in the form of a pie, which the aztecs called food of the gods.i dei”.

They extracted this substance from the lakes of the anahuacusata valley in mexico to use it in meals or for magical-ritual and medical functions.

In more current times, spirulina was uncovered by a french botanist, jean léonard who, at the head of a trans-saharan belgian exploration, in 1965 reported seeing edible green cakes prepared and sold by the women of the kanembu people in the markets of the villages along the banks of chad.

Later on, in between completion of the 60s and the start of the 70s, the institut francais du petrol got in touch with a mexican business, sosa-texcoco to request permission to follow and study the lake blooming of spirulina algae.ina.

After a short time, in the late 1970s, the very first large-scale production plant was born right on the shores of lake texcoco.

Today spirulina is cultivated in many countries of the world in specially produced aquaculture and more prevalent in australia, central america, southeast asia and africa.

In europe, the crops spread mainly to france and italy.

This food, among the most complete on the planet, is now likewise offered to astronauts as a nutritional supplement during space expeditions.

In order to keep intact all its organoleptic residential or commercial properties, extremely helpful for the human body, spirulina should be pure! Produced and dispersed exclusively in the form of fresh pasta – because it is still alive and enzymatically active – to be taken in within a week, or dried under 45 to extend the storage time up to 36 months.mesi).

Spirulina is history but it is likewise the future. The food of the future. (3 ).


Spirluina are water organisms, generally living in freshwater alkaline lakes. However, there are marine species also. They are mesophilic, and able to survive over a vast array of temperature levels; some types are even discovered in hot springs. Spriulina is edible bacteria. Flamingos get their pink color from consuming spirulina which contain phycoythrin. Humans also eat germs. It is understood that the aztecs consumed it routinely, and it may be an important dietary element in tropical locations. It is likewise used in asian cusine. In america, spirulina is offered in natural food stores as a powder or tablet. In russia, it was approved to deal with symptoms of radiation illness after chernobyl, because the carotenoids they contain take in radiation. Evidence reveals that it is capable of stopping viral replication. It avoids the virus from penetrating a cell wall and infecting the cell. Spirulina likewise increase the production of cytokines. This advantage comes from the antioxidants present within the organisms. Spirulina are an outstanding source of both protein and iron, and are useful in the treatment of anemia. They can also act as a food source for intestinal tract plants such as lactobacillus and bifidus. Research study by wang et. Al. (2005) that bacteria likewise slows neurological damage in aging animals, and notes that it can decrease the damage caused by stroke. Research studies likewise show that spirulina can prevent the release of histamines, treating allergic reaction symptoms.

Spriulina has nonmedical uses also. A research study by chen and pan (2005) reveals that the germs can eliminate low concentrations of lead from wastewater. Research by da costa and de franca (2003) highlights that spirulina is also capable of getting rid of cadmium from its environment. (4 ).

Components of spirulina


The most significant bioactive compounds in spirulina are the phycocyanins, consisting of c-phycocyanin. This is a powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory particle with an unexpected cascade of impacts: it has been found to protect brain and liver cells.

C-phycocyanin has a really comparable structure to the human blood protein bilirubin, which is a product of the breakdown of old red blood cells. Bilirubin happens to be a natural anti-oxidant: it binds to oxygen totally free radicals to form biliverdin. Elevated bilirubin can signify an underlying health problem, but in most people, bilirubin is protective. People with low levels of bilirubin are most likely to struggle with atherosclerosis and heart disease. C-phycocyanin might help bring back the oxidative balance in people with low bilirubin.

Spirulina is rich in phycocyanins, which are comparable in structure to human bilirubin, a natural anti-oxidant.

Other functional compounds

Spirulina boasts a variety of bioactive substances like phenols, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. The phenols and flavonoids contribute to this algae’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; the polysaccharides improve the immune action.

Essential nutrients.

Dried spirulina is extremely high in a variety of nutrients. 100 g (or about 3.5 oz) of dried spirulina contains more than 100% of the suggested day-to-day consumption of total proteins, vitamin b1 (thiamin), vitamin b2 (riboflavin), iron, and copper. It is likewise a substantial source of vitamin e, vitamin k, vitamin b3 (niacin), folate, magnesium, potassium, and manganesim.

Keep in mind that if you are taking a couple of grams of spirulina as a supplement, these nutrients will probably not be present in high enough amounts to make a genuine difference in your nutrient status. (5 ).

How to consist of spirulina in the diet plan?

Spirulina is available in powder or tablet type.

  • As a powder, people can:
  • Add it to healthy smoothies, which gives the drink a green color
  • Sprinkle spirulina powder on salads or in soups
  • Mix it into energy balls, along with other healthful active ingredients
  • Stir a tablespoon into tablet fruit or vegetable juices

Individuals can likewise take spirulina as a dietary supplement in kind. (6 ).

Spirulina nutritions

One tablespoon of spirulina contains:.

  • Calories: 20
  • Protein: 4 grams
  • Fat: 1 gram
  • Carbohydrates: 2 grams
  • Fiber: 0 grams
  • Sugar: 0 grams

Spirulina is a good source of:.

Spirulina also includes magnesium. This mineral supports typical daily functions like muscle use and your heart beat. It’s also responsible for producing protein and producing energy– but most people do not get enough in their diet. (7 ).

Benefits of spirulina

Spirulina is among the world’s most popular supplements.

It is filled with numerous nutrients and anti-oxidants that may benefit your body and brain.

Here are 10 evidence-based health advantages of spirulina.

Spirulina is extremely high in numerous nutrients

Spirulina is an organism that grows in both fresh and salt water.

It is a type of cyanobacteria, which is a household of single-celled microbes that are often described as blue-green algae.

Much like plants, cyanobacteria can produce energy from sunlight via a procedure called photosynthesis.

Spirulina was taken in by the ancient aztecs but became popular once again when nasa proposed that it could be grown in space for usage by astronauts.

A standard day-to-day dosage of spirulina is 1– 3 grams, but doses of as much as 10 grams daily have actually been used effectively.

This tiny alga is loaded with nutrients. A single tablespoon (7 grams) of dried spirulina powder consists of.

  • Protein: 4 grams
  • Vitamin b1 (thiamine): 11% of the rda
  • Vitamin b2 (riboflavin): 15% of the rda
  • Vitamin b3 (niacin): 4% of the rda
  • Copper: 21% of the rda
  • Iron: 11% of the rda

It likewise contains good amounts of magnesium,.

Potassium and manganese and small amounts of nearly every other nutrient that.

You require.

In addition, the exact same quantity holds only 20 calories and 1.7 grams of absorbable carbohydrates.

Gram for gram, spirulina may be the single most nutritious food on the planet.

A tablespoon (7 grams) of spirulina supplies a small amount of fat– around 1 gram– consisting of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in an approximately 1.5– 1.0 ratio.

The quality of the protein in spirulina is considered excellent– similar to eggs. It gives all the vital amino acids that you require.

It is often declared that spirulina consists of vitamin b12, however this is incorrect. It has pseudovitamin b12, which has not been revealed to be reliable in humans.


Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae that grows in both salt and fresh water. It might be among the most nutrient-dense foods on earth.

Powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties

Oxidative damage can harm your dna and cells.

This damage can drive persistent inflammation, which adds to cancer and other illness.

Spirulina is a wonderful source of antioxidants, which can secure against oxidative damage.

Its primary active element is called phycocyanin. This antioxidant substance also gives spirulina its special blue-green color.

Phycocyanin can battle totally free radicals and hinder production of inflammatory signaling particles, supplying excellent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.


Phycocyanin is the main active substance in spirulina. It has powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Can decrease “bad” ldl and triglyceride levels

Heart problem is the world’s leading cause of death.

Numerous danger elements are linked to an increased threat of heart problem.

As it ends up, spirulina positively affects much of these elements. For instance, it can reduce total cholesterol, “bad” ldl cholesterol and triglycerides, while raising “excellent” hdl cholesterol.

In a study in 25 people with type 2 diabetes, 2 grams of spirulina each day substantially improved these markers.

Another research study in individuals with high cholesterol identified that 1 gram of spirulina per day decreased triglycerides by 16.3% and “bad” ldl by 10.1%.

Several other research studies have actually found favorable results– though with higher dosages of 4.5– 8 grams per day.


Studies show that spirulina can lower triglycerides and “bad” ldl cholesterol and might simultaneously raise “good” hdl cholesterol.

Safeguards “bad” ldl cholesterol from oxidation

Fatty structures in your body are vulnerable to oxidative damage.

This is known as lipid peroxidation, an essential driver of many severe illness.

For instance, one of the crucial steps in the development of heart disease is the oxidation of “bad” ldl cholesterol.

Interestingly, the antioxidants in spirulina seem particularly reliable at minimizing lipid peroxidation in both humans and animals.

In a research study in 37 people with type 2 diabetes, 8 grams of spirulina each day substantially reduced markers of oxidative damage. It also increased levels of antioxidant enzymes in the blood.


Fatty structures in your body can become oxidized, driving the development of numerous diseases. The anti-oxidants in spirulina can help prevent this.

Might have anti-cancer homes

Some proof recommends that spirulina has anti-cancer properties.

Research study in animals indicates that it can decrease cancer incident and growth size.

Spirulina’s impacts on oral cancer– or cancer of the mouth– have been especially well studied.

One study took a look at 87 people from india with precancerous sores– called oral submucous fibrosis (osmf)– in the mouth.

Amongst those who took 1 gram of spirulina per day for one year, 45% saw their lesions vanish– compared to just 7% in the control group.

When these people stopped taking spirulina, practically half of them redeveloped lesions in the following year.

In another study of 40 people with osmf lesions, 1 gram of spirulina daily caused higher enhancement in osmf signs than the drug pentoxyfilline.


Spirulina may have anti-cancer homes and appears particularly reliable against a kind of precancerous lesion of the mouth called osmf.

May decrease high blood pressure

High blood pressure is a primary chauffeur of numerous major illness, consisting of cardiac arrest, strokes and chronic kidney disease.

While 1 gram of spirulina is ineffective, a dosage of 4.5 grams each day has actually been revealed to reduce blood pressure in individuals with normal levels.

This decrease is believed to be driven by an increased production of nitric oxide, a signaling particle that assists your blood vessels unwind and dilate.


A greater dosage of spirulina may result in lower blood pressure levels, a significant danger element for lots of diseases.

Enhances signs of hay fever

Allergic rhinitis is identified by swelling in your nasal passageways.

It is set off by ecological irritants, such as pollen, animal hair and even wheat dust.

Spirulina is a popular alternative treatment for signs of hay fever, and there is proof that it can be efficient.

In one study in 127 people with hay fever, 2 grams per day dramatically minimized symptoms like nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching.


Spirulina supplements are very reliable against allergic rhinitis, decreasing various symptoms.

May work against anemia

There are several forms of anemia.

The most common one is identified by a decrease in hemoglobin or red cell in your blood.

Anemia is relatively typical in older adults, leading to extended sensations of weakness and tiredness.

In a research study in 40 older individuals with a history of anemia, spirulina supplements increased the hemoglobin content of red cell and better immune function.

Keep in mind that this is simply one research study. More research study is required before any suggestions can be made.


One research study recommends that spirulina can lower anemia in older grownups, though more research study is required.

May enhance muscle strength and endurance

Exercise-induced oxidative damage is a significant contributor to muscle tiredness.

Certain plant foods have antioxidant properties that can assist athletes and physically active people reduce this damage.

Spirulina appears advantageous, as some research studies pointed to improved muscle strength and endurance.in two studies, spirulina enhanced endurance, substantially increasing the time it took for people to become fatigued.


Spirulina may provide several workout advantages, consisting of enhanced endurance and increased muscle strength.

May aid blood sugar level control

Animal research studies connect spirulina to significantly lower blood glucose levels.

Sometimes, it has exceeded popular diabetes drugs, including metformin.

There is likewise some evidence that spirulina can be efficient in human beings.

In a two-month study in 25 people with type 2 diabetes, 2 grams of spirulina each day resulted in an impressive decrease in blood glucose levels.

Hba1c, a marker for long-term blood sugar levels, decreased from 9% to 8%, which is significant. Research studies approximate that a 1% decrease in this marker can decrease the threat of diabetes-related death by 21%.

However, this study was little and short in duration. More studies are needed.


Some evidence recommends that spirulina may benefit people with type 2 diabetes, significantly minimizing fasting blood glucose levels. (8 ).

Benefits of spirulina for ladies

Lowers hormone imbalances

Spirulina is grown in saline waters, so is abundant in natural iodine. Iodine assists in the proper release of hormonal agents & lowers state of mind swings, anxiety, fatigue, & abrupt weight gain.

Helps control pms

Spirulina has cleansing residential or commercial properties, therefore, spirulina consumption assists female reproductive organs to eliminate toxic substances during pms. Spirulina also helps to handle cramps during pms.

Great throughout menopause

Hot flashes and state of mind swings are common during menopause phases. As spirulina is a relaxing and soothing agent, it assists in having a calmer yet energetic day.

Good for hair & nail development

Zinc in spirulina assists in having more powerful nails and iron in spirulina helps fight anemia, typical in women at 20’s. Vit-b12 and vit-e assistance promote hair and nail development. The gla (gamma linolenic acid) in spirulina helps to have elasticity in skin and hair without having dry skin.

Anti– aging in nature

Spirulina is rich in anti-oxidants that help detoxify toxins in the body and helps retain the radiance of skin. It is also abundant in vitamin-e which helps in reducing hair fall and assists improve hair and nail development. Gla in spirulina has collagen which helps in keeping skin tight i.e; it helps reduce dark circles and wrinkles.

Because of these above factors, spirulina is the very best health supplement for all ladies out there. (9 ).


The dose of spirulina utilized in studies examining its impacts differ greatly. In general, 1-8 g each day of spirulina has been revealed to have some impact. The specific dosages depend on the condition its being used for:.

  • For cholesterol, dosages in the range of 1-8 g daily may be impactful
  • For muscle efficiency, dosages of 2-7.5 g daily have been utilized
  • For blood sugar control, extremely moderate impacts have actually been seen with 2 g per day
  • Blood pressure may be affected at dosages of 3.5-4.5 g daily
  • Impacts for fatty liver have actually been seen at dosages of 4.5 g daily

Spirulina is about 20% c-phycocyanin by weight, and about 1% phycocyanobilin by weight. The dose sounded of 200mg/kg c-phycocyanin (1g/kg spirulina) converted to human equivalent dosages from rats is approximately:.

  • 0g for a 150lb individual
  • 5g for a 200lb individual
  • 2g for a 250lb person

Additional research is required to determine whether spirulina should be taken once a day, or in smaller doses, several times per day.

It is not suggested to go beyond the greatest dose pointed out above, as no clear benefits have been noted beyond that level. (11 ).

Adverse effects of spirulina

An allergy might be possible in those adverse spirulina.allergic reactions would consist of rash or swelling. Right away stop using spirulina if you begin to experience side effects and call your doctor.

Typical adverse effects

Spirulina is usually safe, however some individuals have actually reported the following with its use:1.

  • Allergic reaction
  • Headache
  • Muscle discomfort
  • Sweating
  • Trouble sleeping

Severe adverse effects

While serious adverse effects from spirulina are uncommon, know that the following have occurred:1.

  • Anaphylaxis
  • Throat swelling

Instantly stop using spirulina if you begin to experience serious negative effects and call your doctor. (10 ).

What are the preventative measures when taking this item?

Constantly check with your physician before you use a natural item. Some items may not mix well with other drugs or natural items.

This product may hinder some laboratory tests. Make certain to talk with your doctor about this and all drugs you are taking.

Do not utilize this product if you are pregnant or strategy to become pregnant soon. Use birth control you can trust while taking this item.

Take additional care if you are at a high threat for infection. This consists of people who have actually had a transplant, are on chemo, or have an autoimmune disease.

Take extra care if you are taking drugs to thin your blood. These are drugs like warfarin (coumadin), heparin, and other anticoagulants.

Take additional care and talk to your doctor if you have:.

  • Liver issues
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and pemphigus vulgaris

What should I expect?

  • Upset stomach
  • Increased gas
  • Swelling
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Feeling woozy

When do I require to call the physician?

Signs of a really bad response. These include wheezing; tightness in the chest; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat. Go to the er right away.

Signs of liver problems. These include upset stomach or throwing up, tummy pain, feeling tired, dark urine, yellow skin or eyes, not starving.

  • Extremely bad throwing up
  • Extremely bad belly discomfort
  • Very bad loose stools (12 )


The favorable results of spirulina in hay fever are based upon adequate evidence but bigger trials are required. It is thought that the anticancer effects of spirulina are perhaps derived from β-carotene, a recognized anti-oxidant; nevertheless, the link in between β-carotene level and carcinogenesis can not be developed as the etiology of cancer is often multifactorial. There are some favorable studies on the cholesterol-lowering effects of spirulina however larger studies are required before any definitive conclusions can be made. Lastly, there are no top-level proof trials on the role played by spirulina in persistent tiredness and in antiviral applications. At the moment, what the literature suggests is that spirulina is a safe food supplement without substantial side-effects but its function as a drug stays to be seen. (13 ).


  1. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/spirulina_( dietary_supplement)
  2. Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/3247528/
  3. Https://www.spirulinafarm.it/en/pages/storia-della-spirulina
  4. Https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/spirulina
  5. Https://supplements.selfdecode.com/a/spirulina/#how_does_spirulina_work
  6. Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324027#diet
  7. Https://www.webmd.com/diet/spirulina-health-benefits#091e9c5e8200c065-2-6
  8. Https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/10-proven-benefits-of-spirulina#toc_title_hdr_12
  9. Https://globalspira.com/women-benefits/
  10. Https://www.verywellhealth.com/spirulina-89079
  11. Https://examine.com/supplements/spirulina/
  12. Https://www.drugs.com/npc/spirulina.html
  13. Https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3136577/
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