Pectin is a fiber found in fruits. It is frequently used as a thickener in cooking and baking. It is likewise often used to make medication.

People utilize pectin for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, heartburn, and numerous other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these usages.

Pectin was used for several years in combination with kaolin (kaopectate) to control diarrhea. However, in april 2003, the fda found that clinical proof does not support making use of pectin for diarrhea. Because april 2004, pectin has actually not been permitted as an anti-diarrhea representative in over the counter (otc) products. As a result, kaopectate no longer contains pectin and kaolin. [2]


Pectin was first isolated and described in 1825 by henri braconnot, though the action of pectin to make jams and marmalades was understood long previously. To acquire well set jams from fruits that had little or only poor quality pectin, pectin-rich fruits or their extracts were mixed into the recipe.

During industrialization, the makers of fruit maintains soon turned to producers of apple juice to acquire dried apple pomace that was then cooked to draw out pectin.

Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, factories were constructed that commercially extracted pectin from dried apple pomace and later on citrus-peel in areas that produced apple juice in both the U.S.A. and in europe.

In the beginning pectin was offered as a liquid extract, but nowadays pectin is typically utilized as dried powder that is simpler to keep and deal with than a liquid.


Naturally, pectin in the form of complex, insoluble protopectin becomes part of the non-woody parts of terrestrial plants. In the middle lamella in between plant cells, pectin assists to bind cells together and controls water in the plant.

The quantity and structure of the pectin differs between plants and likewise within a plant in time and in different parts of a plant. Hard parts contain more pectin than pulps of a plant. During ripening, pectin is broken down; in this procedure the fruit gets softer as the cell walls break down.

Pectin is a natural part of human nutrition. The everyday consumption of pectin from fruit and vegetables can be estimated to be around 5 g (assuming consumption of approximately 500 g fruit and vegetable daily).

In human digestion, pectin is not used as nutrient, however travels through the small intestine basically intact. In the large intestinal tract and colon, microorganisms deteriorate pectin and free short-chain fatty acids that have favorable impact on health (prebiotic result). Pectin is thus a soluble dietary fiber.

Consumption of pectin has actually been shown to minimize blood cholesterol levels. The mechanism seems a boost of viscosity in the intestinal system, leading to a minimized absorption of cholesterol from bile or food. [3]

Mechanism of action

Pectin is an adsorbent that binds to germs, toxic substances and other irritants in the intestinal mucosa. Pectin has the ability to reduce the ph in the intestinal tract lumen and supplies a calming result on the inflamed mucosa.


Pectin is not absorbed and it is not distributed in the body. [4]


Pectin provides little nutrition.

One fluid ounce (29 grams) of liquid pectin includes:.

  • Calories: 3
  • Protein: 0 grams
  • Fat: 0 grams
  • Carbohydrates: 1 gram
  • Fiber: 1 gram

Powdered pectin has a comparable nutrient content.

Neither the liquid nor powdered form consist of substantial quantities of vitamins or minerals, and all of its carbs and calories come from fiber.

That said, some products called pectin dry blends consist of sugarcoated and calories. These mixes can likewise be utilized to make jams and jellies. [5]


The main usage for pectin is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabiliser in food. The classical application is providing the jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades, which would otherwise be sweet juices. Pectin also lowers syneresis in jams and marmalades and increases the gel strength of low-calorie jams. For household use, pectin is an active ingredient in gelling sugar (likewise called “jam sugar”) where it is watered down to the right concentration with sugar and some citric acid to change ph. In some countries, pectin is also available as a solution or an extract, or as a combined powder, for house jam making.

For standard jams and marmalades that contain above 60% sugar and soluble fruit solids, high-ester pectins are utilized. With low-ester pectins and amidated pectins, less sugar is needed, so that diet plan items can be made. Water extract of aiyu seeds is traditionally used in taiwan to make aiyu jelly, where the extract gels without heating due to low-ester pectins from the seeds and the bivalent cations from the water.

Pectin is used in confectionery jellies to offer an excellent gel structure, a clean bite and to provide a good flavour release. Pectin can also be utilized to stabilise acidic protein beverages, such as drinking yogurt, to improve the mouth-feel and the pulp stability in juice based drinks and as a fat replacement in baked goods. Typical levels of pectin utilized as a food additive are between 0.5 and 1.0%– this is about the same amount of pectin as in fresh fruit.

In medication, pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used against constipation and diarrhea. Up until 2002, it was one of the main ingredients used in kaopectate a medication to combat diarrhea, in addition to kaolinite. It has been utilized in mild heavy metal removal from biological systems. Pectin is likewise used in throat lozenges as a demulcent.

In cosmetic items, pectin acts as a stabiliser. Pectin is likewise utilized in wound recovery preparations and speciality medical adhesives, such as colostomy devices.

Sriamornsak exposed that pectin could be utilized in various oral drug shipment platforms, e.g., managed release systems, gastro-retentive systems, colon-specific shipment systems and mucoadhesive shipment systems, according to its intoxicity and low cost. It was found that pectin from various sources provides different gelling capabilities, due to variations in molecular size and chemical structure. Like other natural polymers, a significant issue with pectin is disparity in reproducibility between samples, which might lead to poor reproducibility in drug shipment characteristics.

In ruminant nutrition, depending on the extent of lignification of the cell wall, pectin is up to 90% digestible by bacterial enzymes. Ruminant nutritionists suggest that the digestibility and energy concentration in forages be improved by increasing pectin concentration in the forage.

In stogies, pectin is thought about an excellent alternative to veggie glue and numerous cigar cigarette smokers and collectors use pectin for fixing damaged tobacco leaves on their stogies.

Yablokov et al., writing in chernobyl: consequences of the catastrophe for people and the environment, quote research study performed by the ukrainian center of radiation medication and the belarusian institute of radiation medication and endocrinology, concluded, concerning pectin’s radioprotective results, that “including pectin preparations to the food of inhabitants of the chernobyl-contaminated regions promotes an efficient excretion of incorporated radionuclides” such as cesium-137. The authors reported on the positive outcomes of using pectin food additive preparations in a variety of medical research studies conducted on children in badly polluted areas, with up to 50% improvement over control groups.

During the second world war, allied pilots were supplied with maps printed on silk, for navigation in escape and evasion efforts. The printing process in the beginning showed almost difficult because the several layers of ink immediately ran, blurring describes and rendering place names illegible till the innovator of the maps, clayton hutton, blended a little pectin with the ink and simultaneously the pectin coagulated the ink and prevented it from running, permitting little topographic features to be plainly noticeable. [6]

Distinction in between pectin and gelatin

Where pectin is a plant-based thickener and food additive, according to medlineplus, gelatin is an animal-based product. Gelatin is made from collagen from cartilage and bone. Pectin can generally be substituted for gelatin in recipes that you wish to make vegetarian or vegan, but gelatin is more versatile and can be utilized in a broader variety of foods.

Gelatin is used as a supplement to drop weight, enhance bones, joints and fingernails, to reduce healing after exercise or sports injury and to improve hair quality. At this moment in time, nevertheless, there is insufficient proof to support that it is a reliable choice for any of these usages.

While pectin may have a variety of healthy qualities, more research study is required to determine how or if taking it in supplement kind will offer any benefit. There is some speculation that drinking a mix of pectin and grape juice will assist treat arthritis discomfort, but according to the arthritis structure, there is no proof to support this claim. [7]

Are there different kinds of pectin?

There are two primary forms of pectin on the marketplace: apple pectin and customized citrus pectin (mcp). Both are derived from the pulp of the source fruit.

Apple pectin

Apple pectin is minimally processed and has higher gel-forming properties.

Modified-citrus pectin

Modified-citrus pectin (mcp), likewise known as fractionated pectin, has actually been processed to include shorter chains of polysaccharides that liquify more readily in water and are much better taken in and utilized by the body than normal, long-chain apple pectin.

The distinct advantages of modified-citrus pectin revolve around its absorbable compounds being able to bind to lectins on unusual cells called galactins. This binding avoids these unusual cells from clumping together, flowing in the blood, and spreading to other body tissues.

Mcp puts in numerous other benefits due to its absorbable compounds. Most especially, they produce considerable activation of white blood cells called cytotoxic t cells and natural killer cells as well as exert a modulating impact on immune function. [8]

Source of pectin

Citrus fruit

The fruits consisting of the most pectin are citrus fruits, especially grapefruits, lemons and oranges. The majority of the pectin resides in the citrus peel, but the pulp likewise includes some. You ‘d require to eat a equivalent of 6 grapefruits to get a significant amount of pectin– nevertheless, you can quickly get more from each grapefruit by using the peel through passion. Use citrus zest to add taste to homemade salad dressings and marinades, or include it to plain yogurt of cottage cheese.


Apples are also an exceptional source of pectin. In useful terms, apples are typically a much better source than citrus fruit since most people consume the apple skins, which is where a substantial percentage of the pectin lives. In contrast, the large majority of people eliminate and discard the pectin-rich peel from citrus fruit. The quantity of pectin in apple pulp varies commonly, from 0.14 to 1.15 percent of weight. Range, growing conditions and ripeness affect pectin content.

Other excellent fruit sources

A number of other fruits are great sources of pectin– presuming you eat them with their skin– and these consist of all berries, peaches, apricots, cherries and grapes. Berries especially noteworthy for their pectin content consist of strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and dewberries. Bananas are likewise a good source, especially if you don’t let them get too ripe or soft before eating them. [9]


High source of fiber

Pectin fiber is more than simply a regulator– it’s a benefit-rich fiber that’s water-soluble and assists lower cholesterol and increases digestive health.

As a soluble fiber, it works by binding to fatty compounds in the gastrointestinal tract, consisting of cholesterol and toxic substances, and promotes their removal. This suggests that pectin advantages the body’s detoxifying abilities, assists control the body’s use of sugars and cholesterol, and enhances gut and digestive health.

A 2014 research study published in the journal of agricultural and food chemistry found that pectin reduced the level of lipid digestion, which was attributed to its binding interactions with specific gastrointestinal elements.

Lipid digestion is when large fat droplets are broken down into smaller droplets. This makes it simpler for the fat-digesting enzyme, called pancreatic lipase, to digest.

This assists your body break down fats into fatty acids.

A 1994 study released in the journal of nutrition discovered that rats that were fed diet plans including pectin had lower ldl and liver cholesterol concentrations than the control group after a 28-day pectin-supplemented diet.

Lowers cholesterol

Pectin is a water-soluble fiber that can bind cholesterol in the gut, thereby avoiding its absorption into the blood stream. Research suggests that the appropriate dose for high cholesterol is 15 grams of pectin per day.

Pectin can be taken in directly from high-fiber foods like fruits, veggies and seeds. Plus, these healthy foods are known to lower cholesterol because of their total fiber content.

A 1998 study published in the journal of physiology and biochemistry suggests that pectin consumption results in a reduction of cholesterol levels in liver and serum along with an increase in waste matter. The study included normal rats that were fed a diet containing 2.5 percent or 5 percent apple or orange pectin, or no pectin, which was the control group, for 3 weeks.

Cholesterol concentrations were figured out in waste (stool) after one, 2 and three weeks of treatment and in liver and serum at the end of the experimental trials. Cholesterol concentration in excrement revealed a considerable boost by week 3 in rats fed 5 percent orange or apple pectin.

Hepatic cholesterol concentration decreased substantially in all pectin-fed groups.

Another research study conducted at the university of florida college of medicine found that a grapefruit pectin-supplemented diet, without change in lifestyle, can considerably decrease plasma cholesterol. The research study lasted for 16 weeks, and it included 27 human volunteers who were screened to be at medium to high danger for coronary cardiovascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia.

The research study did not interfere with the participants’ present diets or way of lives. Grapefruit pectin supplements decreased plasma cholesterol by 7.6 percent and ldl cholesterol by 10.8 percent.

Controls diarrhea

Pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool. For that reason, it’s frequently utilized for natural relief of irregularity and diarrhea.

A 2001 study performed at the centre for health and population research in bangladesh evaluated the helpful intestinal tract effects of dietary fibers from green banana or pectin in kids with relentless diarrhea.

In the study, 62 young boys, age 5– 12 months, were arbitrarily offered a rice-based diet consisting of either prepared green banana, pectin or the rice diet alone. After 7 days, stool weight and consistency, frequency of throwing up and purging, and duration of health problem were determined.

By day three post-treatment, significantly more children recuperated from diarrhea receiving pectin or bananas than controls, and by day four, these proportions continued to increase.

The results suggest that green banana and pectin significantly lower amounts of stool, oral rehydration solution, intravenous fluid, frequency of vomiting and diarrheal period– and that pectin is an essential action to take to stop diarrhea.

Fights diabetes

Pectin is understood to slow down the activity of enzymes that break down starches and sugar.

The absorption of carbs and sugars is slowed down because of the fiber material. This helps prevent blood glucose spikes, which cause glucose intolerance, weight gain and diabetes.

A 1988 study released in the american journal of scientific nutrition evaluated the impacts of pectin ingestion on 12 non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic clients. The participants were evaluated for their gastric emptying, glucose tolerance and hormone reactions after being placed on a 2,400-calorie, low-fiber diet for 2 weeks, followed by four weeks of an added supplement with 20 grams of apple pectin.

The outcomes suggest that continual pectin ingestion slows the gastric-emptying rate and improves glucose tolerance, making it a viable natural help for diabetes symptoms.

Aids weight reduction

Pectin is a water-soluble complex carb that works as a fat-burning food. Since the consistency is gum-like or gel-like, when you consume fresh fruits or veggies with pectin, the cells absorb it instead of the fat.

It likewise assists you feel full longer. That satiated feeling suggests you’ll devour less throughout the day.

A 2014 study carried out at wageningen university in the netherlands examined the impacts of pectin supplements on 29 participants. The results recommend that gelled pectin, in particular, had the ability to reduce cravings, increase energy and lower insulin reactions.

A 1997 research study published in the journal of the american college of nutrition evaluated the hypothesis that pectin increases satiety for 49 male and 25 female u.s. Army staff members within typical weight limitations. On days one and two of the research study, the individuals fasted overnight and were then offered orange juice followed by ice cream four hours later.

Satiety was measured on a visual analog scale prior to and after orange juice and then once again after ice cream.

When orange pectin was contributed to the orange juice, the individuals felt more satisfied for as much as four hours. They likewise reported feeling more satisfied for approximately 60 minutes after a meal with ice cream.

This suggests that pectin, in dosages as small as 5 grams combined with orange juice, increases satiety and can assist in a program to slim down fast by restricting food intake.

Promotes detoxification

Research reveals that consuming pectin promotes the detoxing of heavy metals and other toxic substances that contribute to persistent illness and hinder the body’s capacity to recuperate from health problem.

Due to the fact that the structure of pectin has a gelling system, it has the ability to bind to heavy metals (including lead and mercury) as it moves through the gi system and remove them from the body through stool. [10]

Other advantages

Skin health: although there is little evidence to support these usages, some individuals choose to use apple pectin powder to their skin to alleviate swelling.

Mood stabilizer: in the body, apple pectin changes into butyrate. It has actually been extensively developed that butyrate can stabilize state of mind. Individuals who do not have brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) experience anxiety and sleeping disorders. Butyrate can encourage the brain to launch bdnf, which even more minimizes tension, anxiety, and stress and anxiety.

Throwing up: in a medical experiment involving 62 boys with diarrhea, a diet plan consisting primarily of rice and pectin (4 g/kg for one week) reduced throwing up. Another scientific trial had 18 kids with cerebral palsy who were offered either a diet plan high in pectin (enteral liquid 2:1 v/v) or low in pectin (enteral liquid 3:1 v/v). The high-pectin diet plan reduced throwing up after four weeks. Again, the findings are motivating however inadequate to support this pectin health benefit. Additional medical trials are necessary.

Aching throat: soluble fiber, like that found in apple pectin, can create a barrier and finishing in the throat, minimizing swelling and easing discomfort.

Cancer: an examination group from the institute of food research study in norwich, england, discovered that a component of pectin links to the tumor-causing protein called galectin 3.

Galectin 3 is an essential element in the spread of cancer because it enables cancer cells to separate from growths and reassociate in other places.

Nevertheless, galectin 3 activity is obstructed by pectin, which might stop the spread of cancer within the body.

Studies have reported that apple pectin helps people combat cancer in other ways. A research study group at the university of georgia found that pectin might eliminate as much as 40 percent of prostate cancer cells when exposed to them.

Pectin has been shown in other research studies to be efficient in the treatment of colon and lung cancer.

According to a number of studies, pectin may help prevent breast cancer, albeit these studies are still in their early stages. [11]

How to make your own apple pectin?

Start to finish: 24 hours (60 minutes active cooking).

Yields: 1 1/2 cups.


  • 7 large, tart apples
  • 4 cups water
  • 2 tablespoons lemon juice


  1. Wash the apples, but do not peel them.
  2. Cut apples into quarters, core included.
  3. Put apples in a large pot, include water and lemon juice. Bring mixture to boil.
  4. Let boil for 40 minutes, stirring at the midway mark.
  5. Strain the mixture through cheesecloth. Let the mixture pressure over night to get the most pectin.
  6. Boil the pectin and cook till lowered by half– about 20 minutes.
  7. Refrigerate to use within 4 days, or shop in the freezer for as much as 6 months.
  8. 2 containers of jam sitting next to pears [12]

How to make pectin powder?

Making the pectin mash

  1. Cut the apples into 1-inch-size pieces utilizing the chef’s knife and cutting board. Leave the skin on and the cores undamaged. Any kind of apple can be utilized, however unripe apples have a higher pectin material.
  2. Place the cut apples, consisting of the cores, into the large pot and fill with water until the apple pieces are just covered. Excessive water will indicate more work when it comes to reducing the liquid and making pectin powder.
  3. Cover the pot with a lid and bring the water and apples to a rolling boil. Let it boil for 2 minutes before rejecting the heat, cooking for 30 to 40 minutes until the apples have actually softened, collapsed and appear like they are about to liquify. Do not mash the apples.

Strain the liquid

  1. Line the colander with a single layer of cheesecloth. Location the colander on top of a big blending bowl, so that the handles rest on the edge of the bowl, leaving a number of inches of space in between the bottom of the colander and the bowl.
  2. Ladle the apple mix into the colander, onto the cheesecloth. Cover the apple mixture with the lid, and let the liquid seep out of the apple mix. You may need to let it sit over night. Do not push down onto the apple mix, as this will produce cloudy pectin, due to the fact that little pieces of apple break off into the liquid.
  3. Pour the stretched liquid in the mixing bowl into the pot and bring the liquid to a rolling boil. Boil till the liquid has decreased by half. Not reducing it sufficient methods your completed pectin will take longer to become a powder.
  4. Check the quantity of pectin in your liquid by stirring 1 teaspoon of juice into 1 tablespoon of rubbing alcohol. Liquid high in pectin will form a strong gel that can be lifted out with a fork. Do not eat this test pectin. If the gel can not be raised out as a strong, you need to even more lower your pectin liquid.

Make the powder

  1. Cool down the pectin liquid– it might gel somewhat as it does so. You should have roughly 4 1/2 to 5 cups of liquid.
  2. Stir the cooled pectin liquid in with the tapioca maltodextrin powder, blending in a circular instructions until your pectin develops into a great powder. The pectin will end up being extremely stiff before the clumps separate into the great powder.
  3. Store the powder in airtight plastic containers. Approximately 2 1/2 tablespoons of homemade powdered pectin is equal to 1 package of commercial pectin.


Tapioca maltodextrin can be bought at specialty grocery stores or can be ordered from restaurant supply stores.

Pectin, home or commercially made, helps jams and jellies set just when there is the ideal balance of sugar, acid and pectin. Pectin alone will not cause jelling, and insufficient sugar can still leave you with a syrup instead of a gel. [13]

Negative effects of pectin

Pectin is a kind of fiber that is typically contributed to foods in order to boost absorption and add fiber to your diet. Pectin might likewise be taken as a nutritional supplement that is made primarily from apple fiber. Pectin is likewise used as a thickening representative for numerous kinds of jams and jellies, and it can be drawn out from many types of citrus fruits. Excess ingestion of fiber items, including pectin, might have side effects, including bloating, diarrhea, decline in appetite, and mineral depletion.


Pectin might trigger bloating and gas in your intestinal system, which might cause pain and abdominal discomfort. The fiber in pectin does not get digested and absorbed because of the natural lack of the necessary enzymes that break down fiber in your small intestine. The develop of fiber in your little and big intestines can develop hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases. These gases can lead to the bloating and abdominal pain you feel when you require to pass gas.

Pectin might trigger bloating and gas in your intestinal tract, which may result in pain and abdominal pain.

The develop of fiber in your little and big intestinal tracts can create hydrogen and co2 gases.


As a fiber supplement, pectin serves as a cleaner for your digestive tract, which might cause diarrhea in some individuals, specifically if your pectin consumption is high. With large amounts of fiber in your diet plan, some nutrients might not get taken in by your digestive system. The malabsorption of nutrients in your intestinal tracts may lead to diarrhea. “the encyclopedia of nutritional supplements” states that taking in sufficient amounts of water when taking a fiber supplement, like pectin, may decrease the danger of establishing diarrhea.

As a fiber supplement, pectin acts as a cleaner for your digestive tract, which may trigger diarrhea in some individuals, particularly if your pectin intake is high.

Decline in appetite

The fiber included in pectin can be really dense and broaden inside your stomach. When fiber expands, it puts light pressure on the walls of your stomach, which trigger receptors along your digestive system to signal your brain that you are complete. As a result, pectin and other fiber supplements can cause a decline in cravings and might lead to unexpected weight reduction.

Mineral exhaustion

As the fiber from pectin relocations through your gastrointestinal system, it might obstruct the absorption of specific vital minerals into your blood stream. The uptake of calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc may be decreased because they may end up being trapped amongst the fiber particles in your intestinal tract and, as a result, can not go through the walls of your intestinal tract and into the blood. In order to ensure adequate absorption of minerals, take pectin and mineral vitamins separately. [14]


Prescription antibiotics (tetracycline prescription antibiotics) interaction rating:

Moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Pectin might decrease the amount of tetracycline prescription antibiotics that can be taken in and used by the body. Taking pectin with tetracycline antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To prevent this interaction, take pectin two hours prior to or 4 hours after taking tetracycline prescription antibiotics.

Some tetracycline antibiotics include demeclocycline (declomycin), minocycline (minocin), and tetracycline (achromycin).

Digoxin (lanoxin) interaction score:

Moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can reduce the quantity of digoxin (lanoxin) that the body takes in and uses. This can decrease the drug’s efficiency. Take pectin 4 hours prior to or one hour after digoxin (lanoxin) to prevent this interaction.

Lovastatin (mevacor) interaction rating:

Moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can reduce the amount of lovastatin (mevacor) that the body takes in and utilizes. This can decrease the drug’s effectiveness. Take pectin at least one hour after lovastatin (mevacor) to prevent this interaction.

Medications taken by mouth (oral drugs) interaction ranking:

Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can adhere to some medications in the stomach and intestines. Taking pectin at the same time as medications that you take by mouth might reduce how much medication your body takes in. This can decrease how well these drugs work. Take pectin at least one hour after medications you take by mouth to prevent this interaction. [15]

What are the precautions when taking Pectin?

Always check with your medical professional before you use a natural product. Some items might not blend well with drugs or other natural items.

This product might disrupt some lab tests. Make sure to talk with your doctor about this and all drugs you are taking.

Be sure to inform your medical professional if you are pregnant, intend on getting pregnant, or are breastfeeding. You will require to discuss the benefits and threats of using this natural item.

Take additional care if you are taking specific drugs that lower your cholesterol called “statins”, such as simvastatin (zocor), pravastatin (pravachol), or atorvastatin (lipitor).

Take additional care if you are allergic to cashews or pistachios.

Take additional care and check with your physician if you have:.

  • Irregularity
  • Heart issues
  • Asthma [16]


  • Pectin is a soluble fiber with a powerful gelling ability.
  • It’s commonly used to thicken and support jams and jellies.
  • Although it has numerous possible health benefits, more research in people is required to better comprehend how it affects health.
  • Eating a variety of vegetables and fruits is a fantastic method to enhance your pectin consumption. [17]


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