Table of Contents

Niacin is a type of vitamin B3 made in the body from tryptophan. It’s found in numerous foods consisting of meat, fish, milk, eggs, green veggies, and cereals.

Niacin is required for the correct function of fats and sugars in the body and to keep healthy cells. At high dosages, niacin may assist people with heart problem because of its impacts on blood clotting. It might likewise enhance levels of fats called triglycerides in the blood.

Prescription forms of niacin are authorized by the United States FDA for irregular cholesterol levels and for preventing vitamin B3 shortage and associated conditions such as pellagra. People use niacin supplements for metabolic syndrome, heart problem, cataracts, hypertension, and many other conditions, however there is no good clinical proof to support the majority of these other usages.

Do not puzzle niacin with NADH, niacinamide, inositol nicotinate, IP-6, or tryptophan. These are not the exact same. [2]

History of pellagra

Pellagra was unknown to the doctors of the ancient world and the Middle Ages. It was initially described by the physician Gaspar Casal in Spain in 1735, soon after the maize was introduced into Europe. The name of the disease was developed in 1771 by an Italian physician Francesco Frapolli.

Due to the terrific increase in making use of maize in northern part of Italy, pellagra ended up being so widespread that a special medical facility (called Legano) was built in 1784, specifically for pellagra patients. Reports on the occurrence of pellagra appeared soon afterwards in France (1829 ), Romania (1858) and Egypt (1874 ).

After 1900 pellagra became a substantial health issue in the United States also, especially in the South. It closely followed the intro of a brand-new grain processing method that got rid of most of the vitamins from processed grain. There was a specific shift from the use of coarsely ground corn meal in regional, water-driven mills to finely bolted meal by big milling business.

The outbreaks of pellagra were so ubiquitous and serious that a majority of physicians thought about the cause to be an infectious agent. The true nature of illness was identified when the Federal Government of the United States sent out a physician from New york city, Joseph Goldberger, to study the disease.

The discovery of niacin

Nicotinic acid was synthesized in 1867 by oxidation of nicotine and extensively utilized in photography. It was long idea that it has nothing to do with food or health problems, till German researchers demonstrated that nicotinic acid takes place in yeast and in rice polishing. There it was separated by the Polish-American.

biochemist Casimir Funk in 1912, while he was trying to find a cure for another disease referred to as beriberi (dietary disorder triggered by a deficiency of thiamine).

Since nicotinic acid had no impact on beriberi, he abandoned his deal with that compound. However although he was wrong, he showed that this nicotinic acid most likely had some dietary value. It was delegated the Austrian-American physician Joseph Goldeberger to discover the connection between nicotinic acid and deficiency diseases it can trigger.

In 1915, Goldberger conducted a series of experiments on 11 healthy volunteer detainees in a Mississippi prison and found that he might cause pellagra by changing their diets. He concluded that the illness was triggered by the absence of some factor that was doing not have in corn, but that could be discovered in meat and milk. He called it the P-P (for pellagra-preventative) factor.

The chemical structure of that aspect was subsequently found in 1937 by the American biochemist Conrad Arnold Elvehjem. He induced a black tongue in pets by feeding them the Goldberger diet, and then treated the illness by supplementing their diet with nicotinic acid. He likewise isolated the P-P factor from active liver extracts, showing that this element is in fact nicotinic acid (consequently named niacin for nicotinic acid vitamin).

After this discovery, grain products (wheat, maize) were improved with nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. Still, a wide scale social reform was required to guarantee correct application of such dietary modifications. Most of erratic cases in the industrialized nations are now seen in alcoholics, although in rare instances other clients can establish the illness also (i.e. malabsorption or iatrogenic situations). [3]



In addition to soaking up niacin from diet plan, niacin can be manufactured from the important amino acid tryptophan, a five-step process with the penultimate substance being quinolinic acid (see figure). Some germs and plants make use of aspartic acid in a pathway that also goes to quinolinic acid. For human beings, the efficiency of conversion is estimated as needing 60 mg of tryptophan to make 1 mg of niacin. Riboflavin, vitamin B6 and iron are needed for the process. Pellagra is a consequence of a corn-dominant diet since the niacin in corn is inadequately bioavailable and corn proteins are low in tryptophan compared to wheat and rice proteins.

Industrial synthesis

Nicotinic acid was first synthesized in 1867 by oxidative degradation of nicotine. Niacin is prepared by hydrolysis of nicotinonitrile, which, as described above, is produced by oxidation of 3-picoline. Oxidation can be effected by air, however ammoxidation is more efficient. In the latter process, nicotinonitrile is produced by ammoxidation of 3-methylpyridine. Nitrile hydratase is then utilized to catalyze nicotinonitrile to nicotinamide, which can be transformed to niacin. Additionally, ammonia, acetic acid and paraldehyde are utilized to make 5-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine, which is then oxidized to niacin. [84] New “greener” catalysts are being checked utilizing manganese-substituted aluminophosphates.

that use acetyl peroxyborate as non-corrosive oxidant, avoiding producing nitrogen oxides as do standard ammoxidations.

The demand for commercial production consists of for animal feed and for food stronghold indicated for human consumption. According to Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, around the world 31,000 tons of nicotinamide were offered in 2014. [4]

System of action

Niacin carries out a variety of functions in the body and so has lots of systems, not all of which have actually been fully described. Niacin can reduce lipids and apolipoprotein B (apo B)- containing lipoproteins by regulating triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which degrades apo B, or by modulating lipolysis in adipose tissue.

Niacin inhibits hepatocyte diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2. This action prevents the last step of triglyceride synthesis in hepatocytes, limiting available triglycerides for very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). This activity also results in intracellular degradation of apo B and decreased production of low density lipoproteins, the catabolic item of VLDL.

Niacin also hinders a high density lipoprotein (HDL) catabolism receptor, which increases the levels and half life of HDL. [5]

Food source

Yellowfin tuna: 18.8 mg, 117% day-to-day value (dv)

While tuna is an exceptional source of niacin, larger varieties like yellowfin or albacore tend to be greater in mercury than smaller types like skipjack.

A cooked, 3-ounce filet of cooked yellowfin tuna provides 117 percent of the dv for niacin, plus 83 percent of the dv for vitamin b12, which is required for energy.

Beef liver: 14.7 mg, 92% dv

Ok, so we don’t anticipate you to consume beef liver every day, however the organ meat is a stellar source of b vitamins, including niacin. One slice of fried beef liver supplies an impressive 92 percent of the dv for niacin. It’s also rife with vitamin a, iron and zinc.

Turkey breast: 10 mg, 62% dv

Turkey is frequently promoted as the main source of tryptophan, however in truth, numerous animal proteins (including eggs, chicken and cheese) offer the necessary amino acid, according to the u.s. National library of medication.

So, you’ll most likely get back at more than 62 percent of the dv for niacin from this 3-ounce serving of roasted turkey breast thanks to the conversion of some of its tryptophan to nad in the body. But in order for the amino acid to be transformed into niacin, the body should have sufficient levels of other nutrients, like iron, b6 and riboflavin.

Sockeye salmon: 8.6 mg, 54% dv

Niacin-rich sockeye salmon is likewise an exceptional source of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fats.

In addition to supplying anti-inflammatory omega-3 fats and vitamin d, cooked salmon is also an exceptional source of niacin, with 54 percent of the dv present in a 3-ounce serving.

Chicken breast: 8 mg, 50% dv

3 ounces of cooked chicken breast can provide half of the dv for niacin, plus 27 grams of satiating protein.

If you’re feeling uninspired by poultry, attempt cooking up these healthy chicken recipes you have not tried yet (we assure they will not disappoint).

Portobello mushrooms: 7.6, 47% dv

For a niacin-rich meal, toss portobello mushrooms on the grill in addition to your protein of choice. One cup of grilled portobello mushrooms supplies 47 percent of the dv for niacin, considering them some of the very best vegetarian foods high in niacin.

Pork chops: 6.8 mg, 42% dv

A pork slice can serve up nearly half of your daily niacin requirements.

Though fattier than other cuts like the tenderloin (which is the leanest cut of pork), chops are a fantastic natural source of niacin. A 3-ounce, cooked pork slice delivers 42 percent of the dv for niacin.

Wild rice: 5.2 mg, 32% dv

It’s safe to say that brown rice is among the vegetarian foods greatest in niacin. You’ll get 33 percent of the dv for vitamin b3 in 1 cup of prepared wild rice. You’ll also get nearly 6 grams of protein and 3 grams of fiber from the whole grain.


Set plant-based protein sources like brown rice with black beans for a complete protein that provides all 9 of the necessary amino acids.

Canned white tuna: 4.9 mg, 31% dv

The american heart association recommends consuming fish at least two times per week to keep a healthy heart. Simply make sure to practice small amounts when it comes to canned tuna ranges like albacore or white tuna.

Though rich in niacin– 3 ounces of canned white tuna offers 31 percent of the dv for the b vitamin– these varieties tend to be higher in mercury compared to smaller types like skipjack tuna, per the united states epa (epa). Attempt the seafood in these non-salad canned tuna dishes.

Steak: 4.8 mg, 30% dv

Iron-rich skirt steak likewise dishes out vitamin b3.

Grilled skirt steak is a high-protein source of niacin, with a 3-ounce serving supplying 30 percent of the dv for the nutrient.

Beef is also high in minerals like iron, which supports healthy blood cell formation and oxygen shipment throughout the body, according to the university of california san francisco health.

Peanuts: 4.1 mg, 25% dv

If you’re looking for vegan foods high in niacin, 1 ounce of dry-roasted peanuts supplies 25 percent of the dv. The vegetables are likewise abundant in unsaturated fats that support healthy lipid levels. Pb&& j, anybody?

Prepared breakfast cereals: 4 mg, 25% dv

It’s difficult to say precisely how much niacin you’ll receive from a fortified breakfast cereal, as different products offer various amounts of the b vitamin, however approximates variety anywhere from 20 to 27 percent of the dv per 1 cup, according to oregon state university.

Baked potato: 2.6 mg, 17% dv

Potatoes are a high-quality carb that not only supply niacin however also provide potassium and vitamin c.

Can all of us accept give regular old russet potatoes more enjoy? Sure, sweet potatoes are high in the antioxidant beta-carotene, however one medium baked russet potato delivers 17 percent of the dv for niacin, plus potassium and vitamin c.

White rice (enriched): 2 mg, 13% dv

Though brown rice is a better source of niacin, enriched white rice isn’t too far behind. A 1/2-cup serving of prepared, enriched white rice puts 13 percent of the dv for niacin on the table.

Much like prepared foods, enriched foods have nutrients added to them. The distinction here is that the included nutrients were initially in the food, but stripped away during processing.

Lentils: 2.1 mg, 13% dv

Replacing animal proteins like meat with vegetables like lentils (along with other plant-based proteins like nuts and soy) is connected with a lower threat of coronary cardiovascular disease, per a big potential associate study published in december 2020 in the british medical journal.

One cup of cooked lentils includes 13 percent of the dv for niacin. The pulses are likewise an excellent source of non-heme iron, folate and resistant starch, per the harvard t.h. Chan school of public health.

Sunflower seeds: 2 mg, 12% dv

An ounce of dry-roasted sunflower seeds can bring you 12 percent of the dv for niacin. Spray them on top of salads or mix them into entire grains like farro for a gratifying crunch.

Bulgur: 1.8 mg, 11% dv

A cup of prepared bulgur provides 11 percent of the dv for niacin, plus minerals like iron, magnesium and manganese. Work up a batch of the entire grain for the week, then utilize it in different recipes like grain bowls, soups and salads.

Avocado: 1.7 mg, 11% dv

An excellent source of heart-healthy monounsaturated fats, avocado is also a solid vegetarian source of niacin. A half of an avocado consists of 11 percent of the dv for the vitamin. Of course, we ‘d never restrict you to simply a half of an avocado.

Don’t miss out on these innovative and delicious ways to eat avocado that surpass your basic guac or avo toast.

Whole-wheat bread: 1.4 mg, 9% dv

Whole grains are among the healthiest plant sources of niacin and entire wheat bread is no exception. One piece of entire wheat bread can provide nearly 10 percent of the dv for niacin. Top your toast with peanut butter and a sprinkle of sunflower seeds for a satisfying treat.

Pumpkin seeds: 1.3 mg, 8% dv

Niacin-rich pumpkin seeds in a small wooden bowl.

Not just are pumpkin seeds a great source of niacin, they’re likewise a nourishing method to add crunch to meals.

Magnesium-rich pumpkin seeds are likewise a good-for-you source of niacin. One ounce of shelled, salted pumpkin seeds contains 8 percent of the dv for vitamin b3.

Sprinkle them on salads or your morning oatmeal bowl for extra texture– and nutrients.

Banana: 0.9 mg, 6% dv

By now you understand that there are a lot of vitamin b3 fruits and vegetables– and bananas make it. One big banana serves up 6 percent of the dv for niacin.

Go on and add the fruit to your cereal bowl with a spoonful of peanut butter and a (spoiler alert) cup of coffee on the side for a healthy, high-niacin start to the day.

Coffee: 0.5 mg, 3% dv

While coffee isn’t sky-high in vitamin b3, 1 cup of joe can provide about 3 percent of the DV for niacin. [6]

Benefits of niacin

While more studies require to be performed and supporting evidence needs to be figured out, there are a variety of uses for niacin. In regards to health advantages, niacin potentially can:.

  • Control cholesterol
  • Lower high blood pressure
  • Enhance mental health
  • Clear skin
  • Manage migraines
  • Promote joint health
  • Protect cognitive function
  • Assistance digestion
  • Reduce abnormality
  • Improve erectile dysfunction

It helps control cholesterol levels

In some cases niacin is prescribed together with cholesterol-lowering medications like statins to assist normalize blood lipid levels. It can increase high-density lipoprotein (hdl) cholesterol, which is the healthy kind of.

Cholesterol, by 15% to 35%. And it can reduce low-density lipoprotein (ldl), the bad cholesterol, by 5% to 25%.

Other evidence indicates that niacin benefits people with an increased danger of cardiovascular disease and heart problem due to the fact that it not just decreases ldl cholesterol but also triglycerides. Niacin can reduce triglyceride levels by 20% to 50%. The prescription formulas niaspan and niacor have fda approval to treat dyslipidemia (elevated cholesterol or other fats in the blood).

It may lower blood pressure

Small scientific trials of using niacin have actually shown it has significant blood pressure decreasing results in people with hypertension. In addition, unexpected lowering of high blood pressure is described in the bundle insert of prescription niacin. However, in larger clinical trials involving niacin and niacin-containing programs there revealed either no clear substantial effects of niacin or a little lower mean high blood pressure amongst some niacin treatment groups compared with placebo.

More studies require to be done to identify how efficient niacin can be for reducing blood pressure and lowering the risk of cardiovascular occasions, however up until now the research appears appealing.

It may enhance psychological health

Dietary habits have a considerable impact on many mental illness consisting of depression, stress and anxiety, schizophrenia, and bipolar illness. This has actually resulted in the advancement of dietary standards to help handle these conditions. Niacin shortage has revealed a possible link to some mental disorders.

Research studies have actually documented lowered cerebral blood circulation in depressed clients and enhanced cerebral blood circulation following antidepressant treatment. Niacin is thought to increase cerebral blood circulation, so there is possible to utilize niacin supplementation in addition to prescription antidepressants.

It benefits the skin

Niacin is an excellent supplement for the skin. It can help protect skin cells from sun damage, clear acne when used topically, and reduce redness and swelling. Vitamin b3 in the formula of niacinamide is frequently used as a natural topical skin care treatment to clear acne. Niacin can even assist handle inflammatory skin problem like bullous pemphigoid or granuloma annulare.

It might help manage migraines

Although it’s unclear how niacin achieves restorative results, it could be beneficial for migraine and tension-type headaches and the prevention of these headaches. Niacin may prevent migraine symptoms by expanding the intracranial vessels and following contractions of the extracranial vessels.

It promotes joint health

Vitamin b3 in the form of niacinamide has been revealed to increase joint movement and decrease joint pain, inflammation, and swelling. Because of its anti-inflammatory impact on joints, niacin may work as a great treatment alternative for people with arthritis.

It may protect against alzheimer’s illness

In a research study published by the journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, dietary niacin was concluded to be a possible protector versus alzheimer’s illness and age-related cognitive decline. A greater consumption of niacin may be connected with a slower rate of cognitive decline in time.

It’s good for digestion

Niacin is terrific for the digestion system because vitamin b3 helps break down nutrients like carbohydrates and fats into energy. If somebody lacks niacin, they might have a tough time digesting food and might experience intestinal issues over time.

It may avoid birth defects

According to a 2017 study released by the new england journal of medicine, niacin supplementation during pregnancy avoided malformations in mice. More human research studies need to be done, but initial research suggests that niacin may assist prevent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad) birth defects in humans and lower general birth defect rates.

On the other hand, caution is recommended for niacin supplements while breastfeeding, as there is minimal human information on the effects of niacin in breastmilk. New or expecting moms should constantly talk with their healthcare provider before introducing new supplements or medications during pregnancy or lactation.

It might enhance erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ed) is the inability to get or keep an erection. Since niacin helps improve blood circulation, it may also benefit impotence. In a study published by the journal of sexual medication, a daily dose of approximately 1,500 mg of niacin sufficed to improve sexual function amongst males who had both ed and dyslipidemia. Men with dyslipidemia were studied due to the fact that dyslipidemia is closely related to ed. [7]

Niacin shortage

Etiology of niacin deficiency

Main niacin deficiency

It arises from extremely inadequate intake of both niacin and tryptophan, which generally occurs in areas where maize (indian corn) makes up a considerable part of the diet plan. Bound niacin, found in maize, is not assimilated in the intestinal tract unless it has been formerly treated with alkali, as when tortillas are prepared. Corn protein is also lacking in tryptophan. The high occurrence of pellagra in india among individuals who consume millet with a high leucine material has actually led to the hypothesis that amino acid imbalance might add to deficiency. Deficiencies of protein and lots of b vitamins frequently accompany main niacin shortage.

Secondary niacin deficiency

It may be due to diarrhea, cirrhosis, or alcoholism. Pellagra likewise may take place in carcinoid syndrome (tryptophan is diverted to form 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin) and in hartnup illness (absorption of tryptophan by the intestinal tract and kidneys is defective). [8]

Causes of niacin deficiency

One kind of niacin shortage arises from a shortage of niacin and tryptophan (an amino acid). This type triggers a disorder called pellagra, which impacts the skin, digestion tract, and brain. Pellagra develops just if the diet lacks niacin and tryptophan since the body can transform tryptophan to niacin. People who reside in areas where maize (indian corn) is the main food source are at danger of developing pellagra because maize is low in niacin and tryptophan. In addition, the niacin in maize can not be soaked up in the intestine unless the maize is treated with alkali (as it is when tortillas are

Prepared). Pellagra might be a seasonal condition, appearing each spring and lasting through the summer season, when the diet plan consists primarily of maize items.

Pellagra likewise establishes in people who have among the following:

  • Hartnup disease, a rare hereditary disorder in which absorption of tryptophan is impaired
  • Carcinoid syndrome, an uncommon condition in which tryptophan is not converted to niacin

The following can cause a shortage of niacin:

  • Alcohol addiction
  • Diarrhea
  • Cirrhosis
  • The antibiotic isoniazid if considered a long period of time

Symptoms of niacin shortage

Usually, individuals with pellagra develop a symmetric, dark red rash that resembles a sunburn and becomes worse when it is exposed to sunshine (a condition called photosensitivity). The rash occurs in locations of sun direct exposure, and its area is distinct:

  • On the arms and hands (like gloves)
  • On the feet and calves (like boots)
  • Around the neck (like a pendant)
  • On the face forming a butterfly shape

Skin abnormalities are relentless, and the impacted locations may become brown and scaly.

The entire digestion tract is impacted. The tongue and mouth may become swollen and dark red. The tongue may swell, the mouth may burn, and sores might establish on both. The throat and esophagus may also burn. Saliva production might increase. Other signs consist of nausea, throwing up, abdominal pain, irregularity, and diarrhea (which might be bloody).

Later on, fatigue, insomnia, and lethargy establish. Malfunction of the brain (encephalopathy) usually follows. It is characterized by confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, and memory loss. Individuals may be overexcited, depressed, incredibly elated (manic), delirious, or paranoid (believing that individuals intend to harm them). [9]


In early shortage, medical diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and efforts at verification of niacin shortage. Niacin metabolites, particularly n-methylnicotinamide, can be determined in the urine. Low levels recommend niacin shortage however may also be found in clients with generalized under-nutrition. Serum and red cell levels of nad and nadp are also low however are similarly nonspecific. In sophisticated cases, the diagnosis of pellagra can be made on medical premises. [10]


Normally a niacin shortage might suggest numerous dietary deficiencies; for that reason, a balanced diet is a strong recommendation. Nicotinamide dosages of 250 to 500 mg/day orally ought to be given. Despite nicotinic acid being the more typical kind of niacin, nicotinamide is used for niacin shortages as it does not cause symptoms such as tingling experience, itching, or flushing. Patients with pellagra ought to avoid sun exposure and alcohol consumption. The suggested dietary allowance (rda) for niacin is revealed as niacin equivalents (ne). The rda for children ages 1 to 3 and 4 to 8 years of age is 6 and 8 mg/day of ne. For both kids and ladies ages 9 to 13, the rda is 12 mg/day of ne. For individuals 14 years or older, the rda is 16, and it is 14 mg/day of ne for males and females, respectively. Rda throughout lactation is 17 mg/day of ne. [11]

Niacin negative effects

Niacin oral tablet doesn’t trigger sleepiness, however it can trigger opposite effects.

More common negative effects

A few of the more typical negative effects of niacin can include:.

  • Reddening and warming of your face (flushing)
  • Diarrhea
  • Queasiness
  • Throwing up
  • Increased cough
  • Itching

If these results are mild, they may disappear within a few days or a number of weeks. If they’re more serious or don’t disappear, speak with your physician or pharmacist.

Major adverse effects

Call your physician right now if you have serious adverse effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel dangerous or if you believe you’re having a medical emergency. Serious negative effects and their symptoms can include the following:.

  • Muscle problems. Signs can consist of:
  • Unusual muscle weakness, inflammation, or discomfort
  • Liver problems. Signs can consist of:
  • Tiredness or weak point
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper stomach pain
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes [12]

Dosage: just how much niacin should i take?

Constantly speak with a doctor prior to taking a supplement to guarantee that the supplement and dose are appropriate for your individual requirements.

The majority of healthy individuals acquire adequate niacin through their diet, so additional supplements is not normally required. A lot of research study is based upon deficiencies.

Some supplements contain as much as 500 mg per serving, which is higher than the recommended daily allowance for niacin. Therefore, it’s important to talk about supplements with a healthcare provider. They can help you determine if niacin supplements make good sense in your scenario and can help you find the right formula and dose.

What takes place if i take excessive niacin?

To avoid toxicity, be aware of the proper dose and keep the bearable upper limit in mind. The ceiling is the optimum daily quantity that’s thought about safe and unlikely to trigger unfavorable impacts. If you consume more than this amount or more than what is suggested by your healthcare provider, you might experience the severe adverse effects listed above.

For niacin, toxicity has been kept in mind in dosages over 1 gram. If you exceed these levels, you might wish to seek medical suggestions or go to the emergency room.

Upper intake levels

Upper consumption levels for niacin are as follows:.

  • 10 mg for children 1-3 years
  • 15 mg for kids 4-8 years
  • 20 mg for children 9-13 years
  • 30 mg for children 14-18 years
  • 35 mg for adults [13]


Alcohol (ethanol) interaction rating:

Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health company.

Niacin can trigger flushing and irritation. Consuming alcohol together with niacin might make the flushing and itching even worse. There is also some issue that consuming alcohol with niacin may increase the possibility of having liver damage.

Allopurinol (zyloprim) interaction ranking:

Moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Allopurinol (zyloprim) is used to treat gout. Taking big dosages of niacin may intensify gout and reduce the efficiency of allopurinol (zyloprim).

Clonidine (catapres) interaction ranking:

Moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Clonidine and niacin both lower blood pressure. Taking niacin with clonidine might trigger your blood pressure to end up being too low.

Gemfibrozil (lopid) interaction rating:

Moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Taking niacin along with gemfibrozil might trigger muscle damage in some individuals. Usage with caution.

Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction rating:

Moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Use of high doses of niacin (about 3-4 grams daily) may increase blood sugar level. By increasing blood glucose, niacin may reduce the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Display your blood glucose closely. The dosage of your diabetes medication may need to be changed.

Some medications utilized for diabetes consist of glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), metformin (glucophage), nateglinide (starlix), repaglinide (prandin), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

Medications for hypertension (antihypertensive drugs) interaction score:

Moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Using niacin with drugs that lower blood pressure might increase the results of these drugs and may decrease high blood pressure too much.

Some medications for hypertension include captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), losartan (cozaar), valsartan (diovan), diltiazem (cardizem), amlodipine (norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (hydrodiuril), furosemide (lasix), and lots of others.

Medications that can hurt the liver (hepatotoxic drugs) interaction rating:

Moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Niacin may hurt the liver. Sustained-release niacin preparations seem to have the best danger. Taking niacin in addition to medication that may also hurt the liver can increase the danger of liver damage. Do not take niacin if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.

Some medications that can hurt the liver include acetaminophen (tylenol and others), amiodarone (cordarone), carbamazepine (tegretol), isoniazid (inh), methotrexate (rheumatrex), methyldopa (aldomet), fluconazole (diflucan), itraconazole (sporanox), erythromycin (erythrocin, ilosone, others), phenytoin (dilantin), lovastatin (mevacor), pravastatin (pravachol), simvastatin (zocor), and lots of others.

Medications that slow blood clot (anticoagulant/ antiplatelet drugs) interaction score: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Niacin may slow blood clotting. Taking niacin together with medications that also slow clotting may increase the possibilities of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clot consist of aspirin, clopidogrel (plavix), dalteparin (fragmin), enoxaparin (lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (indocin), ticlopidine (ticlid), warfarin (coumadin), and others.

Medications used for reducing cholesterol (bile acid sequestrants) interaction rating:.

Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Some medications for reducing cholesterol called bile acid sequestrants can reduce how much niacin the body takes in. This may reduce the effectiveness of niacin. Take niacin and the medications at least 4-6 hours apart.

A few of these medications used for decreasing cholesterol include cholestyramine (questran) and colestipol (colestid).

Medications used for decreasing cholesterol (statins) interaction ranking:

Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Niacin can adversely affect the muscles. Some medications utilized for reducing cholesterol called statins can likewise affect the muscles. Taking niacin along with these medications might increase the threat of muscle problems.

A few of these medications used for high cholesterol include rosuvastatin (crestor), atorvastatin (lipitor), lovastatin (mevacor), pravastatin (pravachol), fluvastatin (lescol), and simvastatin (zocor).

Probenecid interaction ranking:

Moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

Probenecid is utilized to treat gout. Taking large dosages of niacin might intensify gout and decrease the efficiency of probenecid.

Sulfinpyrazone (anturane) interaction ranking:

Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Sulfinpyrazone (anturane) is utilized to treat gout. Taking large dosages of niacin might intensify gout and decrease the effectiveness of sulfinpyrazone (anturane).

Thyroid hormone interaction rating:

Moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

The body naturally produces thyroid hormonal agents. Niacin might reduce thyroid hormonal agent levels. Taking niacin with thyroid hormonal agent tablets might decrease the effects and negative effects of thyroid hormonal agent.

Aspirin interaction ranking:

Minor be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Aspirin is often utilized with niacin to reduce the flushing caused by niacin. Taking high doses of aspirin might decrease how fast the body gets rid of niacin. This might trigger there to be excessive niacin in the body and potentially lead to adverse effects. Nevertheless, the low dosages of aspirin most typically used for niacin-related flushing don’t seem to be a problem.

Nicotine patch (transdermal nicotine) interaction score:

Minor be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Niacin can sometimes cause flushing and lightheadedness. The nicotine spot can likewise cause flushing and dizziness. Taking niacin or niacinamide and utilizing a nicotine patch can increase the possibility of becoming flushed and woozy. [14]


Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you must take dietary supplements only under the supervision of an educated healthcare provider. Negative effects might consist of diarrhea, headache, stomach discomfort, and bloating.

High doses (50 mg or more) of niacin can cause negative effects. The most typical negative effects is called “niacin flush,” which is a burning, tingling feeling in the face and chest, and red or flushed skin. Taking an aspirin thirty minutes prior to the niacin might help reduce this symptom.

At really high doses, utilized to lower cholesterol and deal with other conditions, liver damage and stomach ulcers can take place. Your physician will routinely check your liver function through a blood test.

Individuals with a history of liver illness, kidney disease, or stomach ulcers should not take niacin supplements. Those with diabetes or gallbladder illness ought to do so just under the close supervision of their physicians.

Stop taking niacin or niacinamide at least 2 weeks before a set up surgical treatment.

Niacin and niacinamide may make allergies even worse by increasing histamine.

People with low high blood pressure must not take niacin or niacinamide since they might trigger a dangerous drop in high blood pressure. Do not take niacin if you have a history of gout.

Individuals with coronary artery disease or unsteady angina should not take niacin without their doctor’s guidance, as big dosages can raise the danger of heart rhythm problems.

Taking any among the b vitamins for a long period of time can lead to an imbalance of other important b vitamins. For this reason, you might wish to take a b-complex vitamin, which includes all the b vitamins. [15]


The function of niacin as an antioxidant micro-nutrient has been developed in a variety of research study. The mechanisms through which niacin protects the body against oxidative stress can be retaining the glutathione redox cycle, and likewise, decreasing nadph/total nadp+ ratio along with increasing the nad+ content. However most of the examinations in this area are limited to experimental research studies, these mechanistic research studies can be useful for further clinical advancement of niacin and niacin-related substances for the treatment of oxidative stress and its complications. [16]


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