Maritime Pine

Maritime evergreen (pinus pinaster) grow in nations on the mediterranean sea. Its bark may be handy for asthma and enhanced leg circulation.

Maritime pine consists of chemicals that might improve blood circulation, promote the body immune system, minimize swelling, prevent infections, and have antioxidant impacts. Maritime evergreen that grow in southwest france are utilized to make pycnogenol, the trademarked name for a specific maritime pine bark extract.

Maritime pine bark extract is used for asthma, high cholesterol, decrease in memory, adhd, and lots of other conditions, however there is no good scientific proof to support much of these usages. (2 ).


Pinus pinaster is a popular subject in ecology because of its bothersome development and spread in south africa for the past 150 years after being imported into the area at the end of the 17th century (1685– 1693). It was discovered spreading in the cape peninsula by 1772. towards the end of the 18th century (1780 ), p. Pinaster was extensively planted, and at the start of the 19th century (1825– 1830), p. Pinaster was planted commercially as a timber resource and for the forestry industry. The pine tree types attacks large locations and more specifically fynbos plant life. Fynbos plants is a fire-prone shrubland vegetation that is discovered in the southern and southwest cape of south africa. It is found in greater abundance near to water courses. Dispersal, environment loss, and fecundity are all factors that affect spread rate. The types favors acidic soils with medium to high-density plants, however it can also grow in fundamental soils and even in sandy and poor soils, where just couple of industrial types can grow. (3 ).


Maritime pine is an evergreen, coniferous species of tree that grows to mature heights of 100 feet (30 m), with a typically rather sinuous stem (straight in some locations, notably corsica and northwestern africa) and a typically open crown of regular, candelabra-like upswept branches, broadly ovoid-conic when young, ending up being irregular and denser with age.

  • Bark is extremely thick, flaky or plated, fissured, patterned red-brown, blackish and buff.
  • Branching is mostly uninodal, however occasionally multinodal on vigorous young trees.
  • Shoots are rough and stout, determining 0.28 to 0.6 inch (7 – 15 mm) thick, colored buff to yellow-brown.
  • Foliar buds are large, cylindric to ovoid-acute, with red-brown scales having long free, revolute pointers, fringed with white hairs.
  • Adult leaves are maintained for 1.5 to 3 years, determining 4.8 to 10 inches (12 – 25 cm) long, borne in fascicles of 2 (in some cases 3), with a persistent 0.8 inch (2 cm) sheath. They are green to yellow-green in color, sometimes tinged glaucous, spreading, very stout, about 0.08 to 0.088 inch (2 – 2.2 mm) thick, with serrulate margins, and fine lines of stomata on all faces.
  • Juvenile leaves are highly glaucous, determining 1.2 to 2.4 inches (3 – 6 cm) long, on slim 0.12 inch (3 mm) shoots, growing for the very first 2 to 5 years of the tree’s life.
  • Seed cones are slightly deflexed on short stout stalks, in proportion, hard, heavy, and ovoid-conic fit, each determining 3.6 to 7.2 inches (9 – 18 cm) long, by 1.6 to 2.4 inches (4 – 6 cm) broad when closed, ripening rich shiny chestnut-brown in april two years after pollination, and opening the same summer or up to ten years later on, to 2.8 to 4.4 inches (7 – 11 cm) broad.
  • Seed scales are stout, thick, woody, and stiff; the apophysis is 0.4 to 0.64 inch (10 – 16 mm) long by 0.72 to 1.04 inches (18 – 26 mm) broad, with a rhomboid summary, and a strong raised transverse ridge; the stout umbo is dorsal, colored blackish gray, and steps 0.16 to 0.28 inch (4 – 7 mm) wide and 0.12 inch (3 mm) high.
  • Seeds are shiny blackish brown above, matte-gray listed below. Each steps 0.28 to 0.44 inch (7 – 11 mm) by 0.2 inch (5 mm) with an 0.72 to 1 inch (18 – 25 mm) by 0.4 inch (10 mm) wing, that is buff in color with many straight dark brown streaks; it is easily removed from the seed. (4 )

Environmental requirements

  1. Pinaster endures various climate conditions depending on the subspecies. In general, it takes place naturally in warm temperate regions consisting of the mediterranean location, with an oceanic influence on environment, generally in damp and sub-humid areas, where annual rainfall is greater than 600 mm. In spite of that, it is possible for trees to survive in areas with only 400 mm annual precipitation, supplying that there suffices atmospheric wetness. In particular, the southern provenances (p. Pinaster subsp. Pinaster) may grow well in semi-arid conditions. Nevertheless, it will grow finest in areas with a mean annual rainfall of 850 mm, with a minimum of 75 mm in the period between might and september. In its native variety it just stands up to an optimum of 100 successive days without rainfall, however when used in plantations in some areas it can endure a maximum of 150 days of dry spell. Maritime pine can not endure shade, and grows best at low and medium elevations.
  2. Pinaster might be discovered in both flat and mountainous websites in its native variety, however normally at low to moderate altitudes. The subspecies atlantica is less tolerant of high altitude than the subspecies pinaster. It appears to choose siliceous soils with a coarse texture, specifically sandy soils, however it can endure other soil types. The subspecies pinaster can endure some calcareous soils, particularly when they have a coarse texture and are free-draining, whereas subsp. Atlantica, nevertheless, has a low tolerance to limestone soils, and shows a clear choice for sandy silicate soils, and has actually played an essential function in the afforestation of loose dune along the western coast of the iberian peninsula especially in northern and central portugal. It has adapted well to a substrate of silicate origin with low aggregation, poor in significant nutrients and organic matter. Afforestation of these locations was undertaken throughout the late 1800s and very first half of the 1900s, and played a significant function in dune consolidation and soil enhancement. Similarly, the landes area of southwestern france, with sandy soils, has actually been thoroughly planted with p. Pinaster. In south africa, a study of four intrusive pines found that soil ph was the most essential predictor for the circulation of separated trees, whereas the establishment of thick pine stands was mostly identified by fire history. (5 )


Maritime pine (pinus pinaster) is a fast-growing, medium-sized coniferous tree native to the western mediterranean sea. It has been cultivated and is now naturally found in other parts of central and southern europe and in north africa.

The wood is used for constructions, furniture and poles, while its resin is tapped to make rosin and turpentine. Other usages include stabilisation of dunes and slopes, as shelterbelts near seaside locations and for production of plant nursery substrates.

The light-demanding tree consists of a number of different subspecies with high hereditary diversity and is found in a wide environmental range. Originally, the tree grew in warm and damp areas however, as a result of several years of cultivation and adaptation outside its natural range, it is now able to tolerate various conditions, including frost, summer season dry spell and calcareous and bad soils. It grows in elevations in between water level and 2000 m in pure or mixed stands. Maritime pine is considered invasive in the southern hemisphere. (6 ).

What is french maritime pine bark extract?

A dietary supplement consisting of an extract acquired from the french maritime pine bark pinus pinaster, with prospective immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. The french maritime pine bark extract includes high amounts of the phytochemicals proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins have the ability to scavenge free radicals, and therefore may prevent cellular damage. This extract may likewise ameliorate the signs of lymphedema and enhance blood circulation. It may likewise promote the immune system and have antioxidant results. (7 ).

What is it used for?

Traditional/ethnobotanical usages

In 1535, a french explorer is stated to have actually utilized tea made from the bark of the maritime pine to treat scurvy among his sailors when his ship became icebound. The extract has actually been used for anemia, swelling, and heart/blood vessel conditions. Pine bark has actually been utilized as a food source in emergency situations. Pine bark extract is offered without a prescription in us organic food shops and pharmacies, in addition to from online sources.

General utilizes

Pine bark extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions and has actually been studied for a wide variety of ailments, including asthma, attention deficit disorder, long-lasting blood circulation problems, heart/blood vessel conditions, diabetes, and impotence. However, many medical studies have been small and improperly developed. (8 ).

System of action

The main constituents of pine bark extracts are procyanidins and phenolic acids. Pine bark extract acts as an antioxidant by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen types and reducing production of peroxides. It increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes by increasing the intracellular glutathione levels. In addition to increasing no production which induces vasodilation, pine bark extract likewise obstructs the nf-kb activation stimulated by growth necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and hinders production of adhesion proteins that cause inflammation and atherosclerosis.

In vitro, pycnogenol induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and reduced neuronal apoptosis, a crucial feature of alzheimer’s illness, by decreasing free radical generation. In animal research studies, cardioprotective results were also attributed to complimentary radical scavenging. (9 ).

Health advantages of pine bark extract

In southern france, the gorgeous and lavish forests are home to a species of french pine trees (pinus pinaster) that contain unique health-promoting homes. Its usage go back to the 1500s when french explorer jacques cartier and his sailors battled with scurvy– frank vitamin c deficiency– during their long sailing voyages from france to the brand-new world. The story goes that very first countries tribes shared their ancestral wisdom with cartier and used the local evergreen bark as a preparation (e.g. Natural tea) to prevent scurvy.

Today, we know that pine bark is a good source of vitamin c (the remedy for scurvy) along with various phytochemicals, natural plant compounds that support better health. The “all-stars” of the group are proanthocyanidins, effective antioxidant substances (more powerful than vitamin c and e) that provide a wealth of included health advantages. Let’s take a closer look listed below.

Boost antioxidant status

If you’re overweight, out of shape, or in poor health, your body will produce an excess of totally free radical compounds that activate inflammation throughout the body, harming your dna and jeopardizing your health. Antioxidants extinguish these internal fires. Research has shown that pycnogenol– a patented formula of pine bark extract– has the ability to prevent and reduce this oxidative damage from complimentary radicals.ensuring you consume a diet plan high in veggies and fruit is likewise essential to lay the structure for robust antioxidant consumption (coffee is another great source, simply remember to ditch the sugar!).

Improve erectile dysfunction (blood flow)

Pine bark extract has a substantial influence on nitric oxide (no) levels in the body, which are responsible for vasodilation and enhancing blood flow. A recent research study found the mix of pine bark extract and arginine (an amino acid that also boosts no production) worked for improving mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.if you have problem with low libido or impotence, or suffer from hypertension, improving no levels in the body is a reliable technique for helping to reverse these conditions.

Balance blood glucose

Pine bark extract may provide some added advantages for you if you deal with high blood glucose, pre-diabetes, or diabetes. A double blind, placebo-controlled research study of 77 diabetic clients taking their prescription medications, in addition to 100mg of additional pycnogenol, discovered greater enhancement in blood glucose control and cardiovascular health when pine bark extract was combined with diabetic medications. (make certain to talk to your doctor before integrating any supplements with present medications you’re taking.).

Battle colds

There is nothing more irritating than a bothersome cold; it stalls your performance at work and in the gym. A study of 146 individuals experiencing a common cold found supplementing with pycnogenol had the ability to decrease the period (i.e. The variety of days) and severity (i.e. The intensity of the signs you experience) of the colds. This is excellent news for maintaining your pace, even if you have actually got the sniffles.

Increase brain function

If you’ve been dealing with forgetting small details– like where you put your cars and truck secrets or what you’re expected to get for supper– you may be experiencing the early indications of age-related cognitive decline. Stress, poor diet plan, and absence of sleep can all add to sub-optimal brain function, and while diet plan and workout are great for boosting healthy brain function, so too is pine bark extract. New research study reveals that grownups over the age of 55, supplementing with pycnogenol over the course of one year, showed remarkable lead to brain associated jobs compared to placebo groups. The researchers believe the benefits originate from pine bark extract’s antioxidant impacts and ability to lower oxidative tension (related to bad diet plan, high tension, lack of exercise, and so on).

Safeguard skin from sun damage

Getting enough sun direct exposure and vitamin d is crucial for your health and vigor. New research study reveals that not getting sufficient sun exposure is as hazardous to your health as smoking.unfortunately; you don’t want to sacrifice your skin along the way. The addition of additional pycnogenol has been revealed to use security from harmful uvb rays and might reduce hyperpigmentation and enhance skin barrier function. If you spend a great deal of time in the sun, this can be a good added skin assistance.

Lower inflammation

Cytokines are a group of pro-inflammatory molecules that are released when you get a cold or flu, experience a fall or injury (or train too hard in the fitness center!), or if you’re battling with a persistent health condition. Research shows that pine bark extract can lowering pro-inflammatory cytokines il-1 and il-6, responsible for a lot of the unfavorable impacts of chronic inflammation.

Pine bark extract can make a fantastic addition to your nutritional toolbox for its potent antioxidant support, along with its extra support for blood circulation, blood sugar, inflammation, resistance, brain function and skin assistance. Pycnogenol is a standardized supplement formula guaranteed to include at least 65-75% proanthocyanidins, the active ingredient that sets off all these advantages. Keep in mind, an excellent diet plan and routine workout ought to constantly be the structure for building your best health. However, sometimes the body requires a little extra assistance and supplemental pycnogenol can go a long way to keeping your brain and body sharp this winter. (10 ).

Other prospective uses

Pine bark extracts are likewise being investigated for a plethora of other uses in human, animal, and test-tube studies. These consist of:.

  • Healthy aging
  • Wound recovery
  • Menopause bone loss
  • Alzheimer’s illness
  • Attention deficit disorder (adhd)
  • Skin health
  • Athletic efficiency
  • Enhanced cognition
  • Erectile dysfunction

That stated, there’s not yet enough evidence to fully support these usages.


Pine bark extract is being studied as a restorative alternative to deal with several conditions. Its abilities to decrease inflammation and function as an antioxidant make it a strong candidate to deal with chronic diseases. (11 ).

Adverse effects of maritime pine

There suffices research study out there on pine bark extract to understand that it has a tendency to cause some bothersome (but typically moderate) side effects. These might include:.

  • Dizziness
  • Stomach irritation
  • Irritation
  • Low energy
  • Headaches
  • Mouth sores
  • Halitosis

Exist any severe drawbacks?

Pleased you asked. Because human research studies are lacking, pine bark extract is * perhaps safe * when taken by mouth in doses of 50 to 450 milligrams everyday (depending on what it is being considered) for up to 1 year. That stated, it’s always a really great idea to talk with your physician before including any brand-new supplement to your routine.

Remember! Just because something is “natural” does not automatically mean it benefits you or even safe.

Another crucial fyi: some people might be at risk of potentially severe side effects from pine bark extract. You should not take the stuff.

if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. There’s not enough proof to state that it’s for sure safe, so don’t risk it.

You have an autoimmune condition. Considering that pine bark extract can stimulate the body immune system, it might make your signs even worse.

You take antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. The supplement could up your danger for bleeding if you’re taking these medications.

You have diabetes. It’s possible that pine bark extract might tinker your blood sugar level. (12 ).

Pycnogenol vs. Pine bark extract

Pycnogenol is a trademarked name for pine bark extract, and there is little to no difference in between the two in regards to structure or effects. You may utilize pine bark extract or pycnogenol to assist treat a variety of medical conditions, including chronic venous deficiency, retinopathy or erectile dysfunction. Prior to you take pycnogenol or pine bark extract, consult your doctor to discuss the proper dose and prospective health threats.


French marine pine bark extract is commonly offered under the name pycnogenol. It is used to prevent and deal with persistent venous deficiency, along with a number of other medical conditions, according to the memorial sloan-kettering cancer center. Pycnogenol basically includes pine bark extract from the pinus maritima tree. The organic solution is in some cases likewise called french maritime pine bark extract, pygenol or oligomeric proanthocyanidin (opc).


Pine bark extract and pycnogenol contain opcs, also called procyanidolic oligomers (pcos), which are likewise found in grape seed extract, reports the university of pittsburgh medical center (upmc). Opcs appear to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and antimicrobial actions and may act to stimulate your immune system, secure versus atherosclerosis and avoid specific types of cancers, according to the sloan-kettering. Particularly, the opcs in pine bark extract and pycnogenol appear to prevent dripping in the capillary, and the flavonoids called catechin and taxifolin in the herb promote nitric oxide production in the body, which unwinds your blood vessels, discusses.


Both pine bark extract and the item pycnogenol have similar usages, generally for treating or avoiding chronic venous deficiency, states. They may also assist in dealing with hypertension, erectile dysfunction, different inflammation-related conditions and attention deficit disorder, as well as assistance in avoiding cancer, keeps in mind sloan-kettering. Pycnogenol and pine bark extract could assist treat easy bruising, varicose veins, edema, diabetes and diabetic neuropathy or retinopathy, hemorrhoids, premenstrual syndrome and traveler’s thrombosis, according to the upmc. You might take pine bark extract or pycnogenol to assist support weight loss and enhance night vision, as well as to treat lupus, menopausal signs, periodontal disease, asthma, allergic reactions and liver cirrhosis. No definitive clinical research study supports using pycnogenol or pine bark extract to prevent or treat any medical condition, however. (13 ).


The following doses have actually been studied in scientific research:.

By mouth:

  • For allergic reactions: 50 mg two times daily.
  • For asthma in children: 1 mg per pound of body weight given up two divided dosages.
  • For poor blood circulation: 45-360 mg daily, or 50-100 mg three times daily.
  • For diseases of the retina, consisting of those related to diabetes: 50 mg three times daily.
  • For moderate hypertension: 200 mg of pycnogenol daily.
  • For enhancing exercise capacity in professional athletes: 200 mg daily. (14 )



The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with abciximab.


The danger or intensity of bleeding and thrombocytopenia can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with abrocitinib.


The risk or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when aceclofenac is combined with maritime pine extract.


The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when acemetacin is integrated with maritime pine extract.


The risk or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with acenocoumarol.

Acetylsalicylic acid

Acetylsalicylic acid may increase the antiplatelet activities of maritime pine extract.


The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when alclofenac is combined with maritime pine extract.


The risk or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with aldesleukin.


The danger or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with alemtuzumab.


The risk or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with alteplase. (15 ).

Safety measures

Before utilizing pine bark extract, inform your doctor about your present list of medications, nonprescription items (e.g. Vitamins, natural supplements, etc), allergic reactions, pre-existing illness, and present health conditions (e.g. Pregnancy, upcoming surgical treatment, and so on). Some health conditions might make you more vulnerable to the side-effects of the drug. Take as directed by your physician or follow the direction printed on the product insert. Dosage is based upon your condition. Inform your physician if your condition persists or intensifies. Important counseling points are listed below.

Pregnant, planning to get pregnant or breastfeeding. (16 ).


Relating to the food industry, pine bark extracts have been successfully used as antioxidants in the meat market and have been proposed as intriguing ingredients for the juice market and songzhen noodles production. On the other hand, various pinus spp bark extracts have actually been tested versus a wide range of disorders -cancer, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, neuroprotective result and other oxidative stress and inflammatory-related illness. Both in vitro and in vivo assays recommend a promising future for pine as an adjuvant therapy. (17 ).


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