European mandrake is an herb that is the topic of numerous superstitious notions. Some individuals think that it has wonderful powers. The root and leaves are used to make medicine.

Individuals take european mandrake root for treating stomach ulcers, colic, constipation, asthma, hay fever, convulsions, arthritis-like pain (rheumatism), and whooping cough. It is likewise utilized to activate vomiting, cause drowsiness (sedation), lower discomfort, and increase interest in sex.

European mandrake fresh leaves and leaf extracts are applied directly to the skin for treating skin ulcers. [2]

About mandrake history

The history of mandrake plants and their usage and legends goes back to ancient times. Ancient romans, greeks, and middle eastern cultures were all aware of mandrake and all believed the plant had magical powers, not always for good. Mandrake is native to the mediterranean region. It is a seasonal herb with a large root and dangerous fruits. One of the earliest recommendations to mandrake is from the bible and probably dates to 4,000 b.c. In the story, rachel used the berries of the plant to conceive a child. In ancient greece, mandrake was kept in mind for being a narcotic. It was utilized medicinally for anxiety and anxiety, sleeping disorders, and gout. It was also used as a love potion. It was in greece that the similarity of the roots to a human was first recorded. The romans continued the majority of the medical usages that the greeks had for mandrake. They likewise spread the tradition and use of the plant throughout europe, including britain. There it was unusual and costly and was typically imported as dried roots. [3]


The genus madragora belong to the nightshade or potato family solanaceae, a taxon of flowering plants in the solanales order. Members of this family are defined by five-petaled flowers, and alternate or alternate to opposite leaves. This family likewise is are known for having a varied series of alkaloids, which for human beings can be hazardous, useful, or both. For the plants, they reduce the tendency of animals to consume the plants.

Mandrakes, consisting of genus madragora, are herbaceous, perennial plants native to locations of the mediterranean and the himalayas.

The most popular mandrake is mandragora officinarum. This plant has a parsley-shaped root that is typically branched. This root produces at the surface of the ground a rosette of ovate-oblong to ovate, wrinkled, crisp, sinuate-dentate to whole leaves, 6 to 16 inches long, somewhat looking like those of the tobacco plant. Deriving from the neck are a number of one-flowered nodding peduncles, bearing whitish-green flowers, nearly 2 inches broad, which produce globular, succulent, orange to red berries, resembling small tomatoes, which ripen in late spring. The plant grows grow natively in southern and central europe and in lands around the mediterranean sea, as well as on corsica. This plant is called by the arabs luffâh, or beid el-jinn (” djinn’s eggs”).

Tropine alkaloids

One of the most crucial groups of alkaloid substances discovered in members of the mandragora genus are tropane alkaloids, which likewise are found in the solanaceae genera atropa (the belladonna genus), datura, and brugmansia, along with numerous others in the solanaceae household. Chemically, the particles of these compounds have a particular bicyclic structure and include atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine. Pharmacologically, they are the most powerful known anticholinergics out there, indicating they prevent the neurological signals transferred by the endogenous neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Signs of overdose might include mouth dryness, dilated students, ataxia, urinary retention, hallucinations, convulsions, coma, and death.

All parts of the mandrake plant are dangerous. The fruit likewise triggers poisoning in livestock. The arab name mandragora indicates “hurtful to cattle”. [4]


The root is hallucinogenic and narcotic. In enough quantities, it induces a state of unconsciousness and was utilized as an anaesthetic for surgery in ancient times. In the past, juice from the carefully grated root was applied externally to ease rheumatic pains. It was used internally to deal with melancholy, convulsions, and mania. When taken internally in big dosages it was stated to thrill delirium and insanity.

In the past, mandrake was typically made into amulets which were believed to bring good fortune, cure sterility, and so on. In one superstitious notion, individuals who bring up this root will be condemned to hell, and the mandrake root would shout and weep as it was pulled from the ground, eliminating anyone who heard it. Therefore, in the past, individuals have actually connected the roots to the bodies of animals and after that used these animals to pull the roots from the soil. This folklore recommendation is integrated into part of the portrayal of the fictional mandrake seen in harry potter and the chamber of secrets.

The ancient greeks burned mandrake as incense.

In the bible

2 referrals to דודאים (duda’im, plural; particular דודא duda)– actually suggesting “love plants”– happen in the jewish scriptures. The septuagint translates דודאים as μανδραγόρας (mandragóras), and the vulgate follows the septuagint. A variety of later translations into different languages follow septuagint (and vulgate) and utilize mandrake as the plant as the correct significance in both the book of genesis 30:14– 16 and song of songs 7:12 -13. Others follow the example of the luther bible and offer a more actual translation.

In genesis 30:14, reuben, the oldest kid of jacob and leah, finds mandrakes in a field. Rachel, jacob’s sterile 2nd other half and leah’s sister, is desirous of the דודאים and trades with leah for them. The trade provided by rachel is for leah to invest that night in jacob’s bed in exchange for leah’s דודאים. Leah distributes the plants to her barren sis, however soon after this (genesis 30:14– 22), leah, who had previously had four sons however had actually been sterile for a long while, conceived once again and in time gave birth to two more children, issachar and zebulun, and a child, dinah. Just years after this episode of her asking for the mandrakes did rachel handle to conceive.

And reuben entered the days of wheat harvest, and discovered mandrakes in the field, and brought them unto his mother leah. Then rachel stated to leah, offer me, i pray thee, of thy child’s mandrakes.

And she said unto her, is it a small matter that thou hast taken my husband? And wouldest thou remove my kid’s mandrakes also? And rachel stated, therefore he shall lie with thee to night for thy kid’s mandrakes.

And jacob came out of the field at night, and leah headed out to meet him, and stated, thou need to can be found in unto me; for certainly i have actually employed thee with my child’s mandrakes. And he lay with her that night.

Sir thomas browne, in pseudodoxia epidemica, ch. Vii, suggested the duda’im of genesis 30:14 is the opium poppy, since the word duda’im may be a recommendation to a female’s breasts.

Let us get up early to the vineyards; let us see if the vine thrive, whether the tender grape appear, and the pomegranates bud forth: there will i give thee my likes.

The mandrakes give an odor, and at our gates are all manner of pleasant fruits, brand-new and old, which i have laid up for thee, o my cherished.

Magic and witchcraft

According to the legend, when the root is collected, it shouts and kills all who hear it. Literature includes complicated instructions for harvesting a mandrake root in relative security. For example, josephus (circa 37– 100 ad) of jerusalem provides the following directions for pulling it up:.

A furrow should be dug around the root up until its lower part is exposed, then a dog is tied to it, after which the individual connecting the pet dog must escape. The dog then endeavours to follow him, therefore quickly pulls up the root, however dies suddenly instead of his master. After this, the root can be managed without worry.

Excerpt from chapter xvi, “witchcraft and spells”, of transcendental magic: its teaching and ritual by nineteenth-century occultist and ritualistic magician eliphas levi:.

The natural mandragore is a filamentous root which, more or less, provides as a whole either the figure of a male, or that of the virile members. It is slightly narcotic, and an aphrodisiacal virtue was ascribed to it by the ancients, who represented it as being looked for by thessalian sorcerers for the composition of philtres. Is this root the umbilical vestige of our terrestrial origin? We dare not seriously affirm it, but all the same it is certain that guy came out of the slime of the earth, and his first appearance needs to have been in the form of a draft. The examples of nature make this idea necessarily acceptable, a minimum of as a possibility. The first guys were, in this case, a family of enormous, delicate mandragores, animated by the sun, who rooted themselves up from the earth; this assumption not just does not exclude, however, on the contrary, favorably supposes, imaginative will and the providential co-operation of a first cause, which we have factor to call god. Some alchemists, impressed by this idea, hypothesized on the culture of the mandragore, and experimented in the synthetic reproduction of a soil sufficiently rewarding and a sun adequately active to humanise the said root, and hence develop guys without the concurrence of the female. Others, who regarded humanity as the synthesis of animals, despaired about vitalising the mandragore, but they crossed monstrous pairs and forecasted human seed into animal earth, just for the production of outrageous criminal offenses and barren deformities.

The following is drawn from jean-baptiste pitois’ the history and practice of magic:.

Would you like to make a mandragora, as effective as the homunculus (little guy in a bottle) so applauded by paracelsus? Then find a root of the plant called bryony. Take it out of the ground on a monday (the day of the moon), a little time after the vernal equinox. Cut off the ends of the root and bury it during the night in some country churchyard in a dead man’s tomb. For 1 month, water it with cow’s milk in which three bats have been drowned. When the 31st day shows up, take out the root in the middle of the night and dry it in an oven heated up with branches of verbena; then wrap it up in a piece of a dead man’s winding-sheet and carry it with you everywhere.

In middle ages times, mandrake was thought about an essential component in a plethora of witches’ flying lotion dishes as well as a main component of magical potions and brews. These were entheogenic preparations utilized in european witchcraft for their mind-altering and hallucinogenic results. Starting in the late middle ages and afterwards, some believed that witches used these lotions or consumed these potions to help them fly to gatherings with other witches, meet with the devil, or to experience bacchanalian carousal. [5]

How to grow mandrake

There are multiple methods to grow mandrake. The very first method is to begin the plant indoors from seed. Realize, mandrake is understood for having spotty germination.

Therefore, it’s a good idea to begin a few more seeds than you desire in plants. You might acquire the seeds or gather them from excessively ripe fruit in late summer season or fall.

In any case, make sure you plant mandrake seeds within 6 months as they don’t save well. Prior to planting the seeds, they should go through a stratification process.

You complete this procedure by saving the seeds in a freezer bag that’s filled with moist sand. Seal the bag and keep it in the refrigerator for one month.

As soon as the stratification procedure is total, the seeds must germinate within two weeks. You might permit the seeds to germinate in the bag or in soil.

Mandrake has a long root which does not take pleasure in being interrupted. For this reason, it’s recommended to start the seeds in a biodegradable pot after they have actually gone through stratification.

Fill each pot with loose, nutrient-dense soil that’s well-draining. Ensure the seeds are grown in a warm place. Once the seeds have sprouted, move them beneath a grow light.

A grow light is recommended as it will offer both light and heat. If you supply light from a window, this might leave room for drafts to take place which would be counterproductive to the growing process.

When the plants are big enough, you might move them to an outdoor growing location or plant them in a container.

If you move the plants outdoors to grow in the ground, pick an area with all the required growing conditions.

Dig a hole deep enough to support the naturally degradable pot. Location the pot in the ground, backfill the hole with soil, and press strongly around the base of the plant.

The next technique for growing mandrake is to place fresh seeds into a perfect growing location in the fall. This approach only works if you live in a mild climate.

By straight sowing them into the growing place, the seeds will naturally go through the stratification process.

Make sure to till the location going as deep as a foot or foot and a half. The seeds must be planted a 1/2 inch deep below the soil. Ensure you leave one foot of space between each plant.

Our next approach to growing mandrake is in a container. It’s best to begin the seeds inside and move them to a container once they’re fully grown enough or buy a fully grown mandrake plant online.

Dig a hole deep enough to support the root ball of the bought plant or the naturally degradable container the seedling was begun in. When growing in a container, pick one that’s two times the width and depth of the plant.

The planter can be placed outdoors and brought inside to overwinter, or you might grow mandrake indoors year-round as long as it’s in an area which receives full sunshine.

Be mindful that mandrake plants which are grown in containers, may fall inactive during the hottest parts of the year.

The last method to growing mandrake is through propagation of the plant’s root. This technique shouldn’t be tried on plants younger than 3 years old.

Presuming that your plant is grown in a technique where it won’t go inactive till winter, this is the ideal time to gather some of the root.

Dig around the edge of the plant and eliminate a slice of the root. Securely press on the soil around the plant as soon as you’re done removing as many pieces of the root as you want. This will ensure the original plant continues to grow.

Take the pieces of the root and plant them in a prepared bed or container. If you grow them in a container, fill it with damp sand.

If growing mandrake in a garden bed from a piece of root, make sure the bed stays weed complimentary. Keep the growing location (the bed or container) evenly moist throughout the growing process. The new mandrake plants will not be ready to gather for another three to 4 years.

Mandrake is a plant which takes persistence to grow. Nevertheless, you have many techniques to choose from. Select the alternative that works best for your comfort and skill level if you desire to add mandrake to your landscape.

Taking care of mandrake

Mandrake is a low-maintenance plant that prefers to be left alone for the most part. The only things it will require from you is fertilizer and water.

You should only fertilize mandrake one time each year. Utilize a well balanced fertilizer and apply it in early spring to provide the plant the boost of nutrients it requires to bloom.

When watering mandrake, it’s best to utilize the deep watering approach. This is important due to the fact that excessive water can cause disease.

Therefore, by applying bigger quantities of water, less days of the week, you lessen the danger of this taking place.

Don’t apply any more water to the plant without evaluating the soil first. When the soil is dry to your second knuckle, it’s time to water the plant deeply once again.

This is all that’s required of you to take care of a mandrake plant properly. Enjoy this low-maintenance plant as they’re scarce.

Garden bugs and illness which could impact mandrake

Mandrake is a harmful plant. For this reason, you need to be careful where you plant it to prevent accidentally damaging pets or kids.

However, their harmful trait serves them well when hindering bugs in the garden. The only pests which are understood for troubling this plant are snails and slugs.

They delight in chomping on the young flowers of the plant. You can hinder these pests by spraying mandrake with an insecticide.

You may likewise spray diatomaceous earth or coffee grounds around the base of the plant. The caffeine in the coffee discourages the pests while diatomaceous earth develops a hard surface for crawling.

Mandrake also deals with concerns with fungal illness such as root rot. This typically happens because the plants aren’t grown in perfect conditions.

It’s vital that mandrake is grown where the soil drains adequately and gets ample sunshine. Fungal illness thrives in areas with cold, damp soil. Avoid these conditions and your mandrake ought to be fine.

As you can tell, mandrake doesn’t face numerous threats. Yet, it’s crucial that you remain alert to these prospective dangers to guarantee your plant remains healthy.

How to harvest mandrake

I wish to be clear, once again, in this portion of the short article. Mandrake is a hazardous plant. You should never ever collect this plant with the objective to consume it.

However, i did wish to cover how you can gather the root and leaves should you want them for other functions.

Plus, it is essential to resolve a few of the rumors around collecting mandrake. To start, mandrake root is gathered by digging around the base of the plant.

Once the soil is loose, you must be able to carefully get rid of the root from the ground. Brush the dirt from the root and store it in a cool, dry, safe area until you’re ready to utilize it.

You might also gather the leaves of mandrake by carefully plucking them from the plant. They, too, ought to be kept in a cool, dry, and safe location.

It’s wise to wash your hands and wear gloves anytime you’re gardening. This is especially crucial when handling a poisonous plant.

Now, to address the reports around gathering mandrake. Mandrake has a dark history. The root is stated to appear like a human. Individuals when gathered it since it has hallucinogenic effects.

Many years earlier, prior to the development of modern medication, physicians would recommend small amounts of mandrake to prepare someone for surgical treatment.

However, if you took too much of the root, it might result in death.

When people would collect the root, it was said that the root would yell. Whoever heard the scream, would quickly pass away.

Individuals would even go to the length of having an animal dig the root up for them, so it would die and not a person.

In truth, the root does not shout and there are no modern reports of anybody diing due to gathering the plant.

You now know how to grow, plant, look after, and even harvest mandrake. This plant produces a quite flower and lively, though inedible, fruit.

Mandrake needs to be treated with respect due to the fact that it’s a harmful plant. However, if you want to grow a plant with a rich history, mandrake could be for you. [6]

Standard usages and advantages of mandrake

  • It is also used to deal with travel sickness.
  • Fresh or dried root consists of extremely harmful alkaloids and is cathartic, highly emetic, hallucinogenic and narcotic.
  • In sufficient quantities it causes a state of oblivion and was used as an anaesthetic for operations in early surgery.
  • It was much utilized in the past for its anodyne and soporific residential or commercial properties.
  • In the past, juice from the carefully grated root was used externally to eliminate rheumatic discomforts, ulcers and scrofulous growths.
  • It was likewise utilized internally to deal with melancholy, convulsions and mania.
  • When taken internally in big dosages, however, it is stated to excite delirium and madness.
  • Leaves are harmless and cooling, it has actually been used for lotions and other external applications to ulcers etc.
  • In the past, mandrake was typically made into amulets which were believed to bring good luck and cure sterility.
  • Organic mandrake was thought to have great powers and was used to cure almost any condition, from constipation and colic to convulsions.
  • It is a terrific home remedy to treat stomach ulcers.
  • Individuals with the problem of whooping cough, hay fever, or asthma can ease the signs with this plant.
  • It is a fantastic remedy for irregularity.
  • This root is likewise helpful to minimize pain, including arthritis-related pain.
  • It is also effective for increasing interest in sex.
  • Its lots of usages include the treatment of jaundice, bilious along with fever.
  • Mandragora is likewise used to treat cancer, therefore making it an excellent organic cancer remedy.
  • It is one of the very best natural treatments for liver illness, bowels conditions along with swelling, varicose veins, promote sex drive and ulcers.
  • The herb was also used internally to cure anxiety, convulsions along with obsession.
  • Dehydrated bark of the plant’s root was likewise given to patients as a forceful emetic.
  • They mainly utilized the herb to acquire rest and sleep when suffering from consistent discomfort.
  • The ancients likewise used the herb in little dosages to treat maniacal problems.

Other truths

  • In one superstition, individuals who pull up this root will be condemned to hell, and the mandrake root would shriek as it was pulled from the ground, killing anybody who heard it.
  • In the past, people have actually tied the roots to the bodies of animals and then utilized these animals to pull the roots from the soil.
  • An extract of the roots is used as an active ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations as a skin conditioner and tonic.
  • Sale of mandrake is prohibited in some nations, and contemporary usages for mandrake are restricted.
  • Centuries ago, nevertheless, females believed this bizarre-looking plant might induct conception, and baby-shaped roots were put under the pillow.
  • Uses for mandrake consisted of predicting the future and offering defense for soldiers entering into fight.
  • Natural mandrake was likewise utilized as a love potion and aphrodisiac.
  • It was extensively carried out in spiritual practices and to drive away fiends or toxin one’s enemies. [7]

How do you use mandrake root for fertility?

Uses: utilize as a poppet or to stuff poppets, carry in a mojo bag, place on mantle for protection, place under pillow to promote fertility, utilize to dress spell candles, or as a casting herb. [8]

Is a mandrake dangerous?

European mandrake is possibly unsafe and should be avoided. It can trigger lots of side effects, including confusion, drowsiness, dry mouth, heart problems, vision problems, getting too hot, issues with urination, and hallucinations. Large dosages can be fatal.

Can mandrake root eliminate you?

Mandrake toxicity is high enough that it could get an amateur or even professional user eliminated or in the health center for a prolonged stay. It is best to appreciate the plant but make no strategies to ingest it.

Just how much mandrake is fatal?

As low as 3– 6 mg is deadly for a grownup. It triggers fast onset of symptoms of death due to cardiovascular collapse and respiratory paralysis.

Can i touch mandrake?

” in europe we have things like mandrake and henbane and lethal nightshade, so solanaceae in europe are baddies, they are not to be touched and not to be eaten and not to be meddled with.

Does mandrake truly scream?

According to the legend, when the root is collected, it shrieks and kills all who hear it. Literature includes intricate instructions for harvesting a mandrake root in relative safety. … after this, the root can be handled without fear. [9]


Drying medications (anticholinergic drugs) interaction ranking:

Moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

European mandrake includes chemicals that trigger a drying impact. It also affects the brain and heart. Drying medications called anticholinergic drugs can likewise cause these effects. Taking european mandrake and drying medications together may cause adverse effects including dry skin, dizziness, low high blood pressure, fast heartbeat, and other severe negative effects.

Some of these drying medications consist of atropine, scopolamine, and some medications used for allergies (antihistamines), and for depression (antidepressants).

Medications taken by mouth (oral drugs) interaction ranking:

Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

European mandrake appears to slow down the bowels. Taking european mandrake in addition to medications taken by mouth may increase just how much medicine your body soaks up. Increasing how much medicine your body takes in can increase the impacts and adverse effects of your medicines. [10]

Special precautions and cautions

European mandrake is perhaps unsafe and must be avoided. It can cause lots of adverse effects, consisting of confusion, sleepiness, dry mouth, heart issues, vision issues, overheating, issues with urination, and hallucinations. Big dosages can be deadly. It is unsafe for anybody to use european mandrake, but people with the list below conditions are especially most likely to experience damaging adverse effects.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: don’t take european mandrake by mouth if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. It can trigger major or even deadly side effects.

Children: don’t give european mandrake to kids because they are particularly conscious the hazardous chemicals it consists of.

Down syndrome: don’t provide european mandrake to individuals with down syndrome since they are specifically conscious the hazardous chemicals it includes. [11]


The best-known types, mandragora officinarum, has long been understood for its toxic homes. In ancient times it was utilized as a narcotic and an aphrodisiac, and it was likewise believed to have specific magical powers. Its root was thought to be in the power of dark earth spirits. It was believed that the mandrake could be safely rooted out only in the moonlight, after suitable prayer and ritual, by a black canine attached to the plant by a cord. Human hands were not to come in contact with the plant. In middle ages times it was believed that as the mandrake was pulled from the ground, it said a scream that killed or drove mad those who did not block their ears versus it. After the plant had been devoid of the earth, it could be used for beneficent functions, such as recovery, inducing love, assisting in pregnancy, and offering soothing sleep. Mandrake is still utilized periodically in natural and herbal remedies and has applications in modern witchcraft and occult practices. [12]


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