Luteolin is a yellow crystalline flavonoid commonly present in plant families of pteridophyta, bryophyta, magnoliophyta, and pinophyta. It puts in a range of biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. [2]


Luteolin is the primary yellow color substance that is acquired from the plant reseda luteola, which has been used as a source of the dye considering that at least the first millennium b.c. Luteolin was first isolated in pure type, and named, in 1829 by the french chemist michel eugène chevreul. The luteolin empirical formula was identified by the austrian chemists heinrich hlasiwetz and leopold pfaundler in 1864. In 1896, the english chemist arthur george perkin proposed the right structure for luteolin. Perkin’s proposed structure for luteolin was verified in 1900 when the polish-swiss chemist stanislaw kostanecki (1860– 1910) and his students a. Różycki and j. Tambor synthesized luteolin. [3]

The best foods with luteolin, according to a dietary psychiatrist


Parsley is one of dr. Naidoo’s favorite herbs, given that it’s a key source of micronutrients that promote neurological health, with luteolin (and folate) chief among them. “parsley can help to boost psychological physical fitness, brain health, energy levels, and total cognition,” she describes, adding that she loves topping this herb on salads and loading up on parsley-rich chimichurri with grass-fed steak, grilled tofu, or cauliflower.


This purple leafy veggie is another great source of luteolin, making it a great option to use as a base for salads or perhaps to substitute for covers and tortillas. “its leaves look like little boats, so i love to make healthy tacos by stuffing a radicchio leaf with other sliced veggies, avocado, and a tidy protein, seasoned with cumin and oregano and a burst of fresh squeezed lime,” dr. Naidoo shares. Taco tuesday with a side of brain-boosting, heart-healthy advantages, anyone?

Green bell peppers

Aside from being abundant in luteolin, green bell peppers also load lots of other bioactive substances “that display antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and immunostimulant homes, and antidiabetic, antitumoral and neuroprotective activities,” per a 2021 review in the medical journal particles. Dr. Naidoo advises eating green bell peppers either “raw and sliced into a vibrant salad, or grilled on vibrant skewers alongside other seasonal veggies.” Reward points go to those who include these vibrant peppers to the radicchio tacos above.

Chicory greens

While i’m familiar with chicory thanks to new orleans– style coffee (which includes roasting, grinding, and brewing the root of the plant), dr. Naidoo states that their greens can be incorporated into meals similar to other leafy greens. However, she cautions that they have a robust flavor profile, so she provides a couple of suggestions to enjoy them without frustrating your taste buds. “i recommend including chicory greens to soups or stews, or sautéing them in avocado oil for a tasty side meal,” she recommends.


Whether you prefer your celery raw, prepared, or juiced, this flexible vegetable can help you increase your consumption of anti-inflammatory luteolin. Dr. Naidoo discusses it’s a staple in lots of healthy soup recipes (in fact, i’m slow-cooking a hearty chicken soup filled with sliced stalks of it today), and that it also pairs well with hummus or almond butter for a healthy, hydrating, and crispy snack.


As if we needed one more reason to love this fall dietary staple, pumpkin likewise takes place to be an excellent source of luteolin. “i enjoy roasting pumpkin and pureeing it into a warming soup with earthy spices like cinnamon and clove,” states dr. Naidoo. In the off season, you may likewise want to treat on a handful of pumpkin seeds or integrate them into any variety of recipes, as they include percentages of this inflammation-busting flavonoid.


Last on dr. Naidoo’s go-to list of luteolin foods is kohlrabi, a cruciferous veggie comparable in taste to broccoli stems. “kohlrabi is a favorite veggie of mine; i enjoy to clean it and cut up pieces to chew on,” she shares. You can also blend it into salads or enjoy it steamed, stir-fried, or grilled as part of bigger meals. [4]

Mechanism of flavonoid action

Luteolin hinders several signaling steps consisting of pi3k, nfκb, pkcθ, stat3, and intracellular calcium ions. Flavonoids also inhibit mc degranulation by interacting with distinct vesicle-dependent snare complexes. It was recently reported that specific flavonoids prevented cytokine expression in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell by hindering il-33 signaling.

Flavonoids can likewise hinder acetylcholinesterase, which will increase acetylcholine and improve memory. It is of interest that luteolin further prevents release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, while it activates receptors for the repressive neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (gaba) independent of gaba, recommending it may also have a soothing impact. In fact, benzodiazepines that act by triggering gaba receptors were revealed to bind to mcs. [5]

Prospective advantages of luteolin

Animal and cell research study (doing not have proof)

No clinical proof supports making use of luteolin for any of the conditions noted in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should assist additional investigational efforts. However, the studies listed below need to not be interpreted as encouraging of any health benefit.

Remember to speak with a physician prior to taking luteolin supplements. They ought to never be used as a replacement for medical treatment.

May secure the brain and nerves

Luteolin had the ability to safeguard the brain and improve nerve development in various animal and cell studies by:.

  • Decreasing glutamate levels
  • Combating brain swelling and oxidative tension
  • Supporting nerve cell development in the hippocampus
  • Preventing protein anomalies

Alzheimer’s disease

Research studies on rats with alzheimer’s disease have validated the anti-inflammatory and brain-protecting results of luteolin. It prevented alzheimer’s in animals by boosting their cognition, memory, and coordination.

Luteolin guards human brain cells against free-radical damage and inflammatory proteins particular to this illness.


Luteolin might combat depression in mice by protecting the nerves in the hippocampus (brain center for feelings and memory) and activating gaba receptors.


In mice with seizures, luteolin had the ability to:.

  • Increase glutathione and reduce oxidative mental retardation
  • Increase the advantageous proteins– bdnf and creb
  • Reverse cognitive impairment
  • Prevent seizures and reduce their intensity


Luteolin revealed similar protective results in mice with different neurological conditions. As a result, it reduced the symptoms of:.

  • Parkinson’s illness
  • Brain trauma
  • Several sclerosis

Animal research recommends that luteolin might play a role in mental health, but human research study is doing not have.

Antimicrobial properties

Bacterial infections

The cell wall of gram-negative germs contains lipopolysaccharides (lps), which can activate extreme inflammation in our bodies and trigger different signs of a bacterial infection.

In studies on mice, luteolin obstructed lps-induced inflammation and protected the animals versus fatal infections. It was able to increase survival by up to 44%.

Luteolin avoided lps-induced eye infection in rats by preventing inflammatory particles (tnf-alpha, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin-e2). It was as efficient as a corticosteroid drug, prednisolone.

Cell studies have confirmed the capacity of luteolin to reverse the inflammation set off by lps. It obstructed inflammatory enzymes such as inos and cox-2.

Luteolin avoided breast swelling (caused by s. Aureus) and lung swelling (brought on by c. Pneumoniae and chlamydia) in mice.

Viral infections

In mice, luteolin inhibited the spreading of epstein-barr virus, preventing nose and throat cancer activated by this virus. It likewise blocked the hepatitis b infection, which might trigger serious liver damage.

In a cell research study, luteolin showed powerful activity against japanese sleeping sickness infection (jev), the leading reason for viral brain inflammation.

Luteolin has some antimicrobial and antiviral activity on direct contact and in mice.

Heart health

Cardiovascular diseases still top the list of death causes, claiming 1/4 of lives in the us.

In studies on rats and their isolated hearts, luteolin had the ability to:.

  • Reinforce heart cells and boost contractions
  • Stabilize heart enzymes
  • Avoid tissue damage and cell death
  • Secure the cells against oxidative tension during a cardiac arrest

Luteolin reduced swelling and fat buildup in capillary of mice, protecting them versus atherosclerosis or plaque buildup.

Luteolin enhanced and supported the heart and prevented fat buildup in blood vessels in rat and mouse studies.

Diabetes issues

In diabetes, high glucose levels ultimately damage capillary, triggering a wide variety of diabetes complications. Oxidative stress plays a critical function in these problems.

Luteolin relieved oxidative damage in diabetic rats, securing them versus:.

  • Diabetic encephalopathy (brain damage)
  • Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage)
  • Diabetic cystopathy (bladder dysfunction)

In test tubes, the antioxidant impacts of luteolin avoided diabetic osteopathy, or bone destruction.

In diabetic rats, luteolin protected against problems of diabetes that harm the brain, nerves, and bladder.

Inflammation and allergic reactions

In mice, luteolin prevented inflammation and allergic response in the lungs and nose by preventing inflammatory cytokines: il-4, il-5, and il-13.

It can also support mast cells, which launch histamine and trigger allergies. Due to its anti-inflammatory homes, luteolin is being looked into as a possible complementary treatment for numerous sclerosis.

Skin protection

Ever heard advice to “eat your sunscreen”? Here’s how it works: when you consume them, antioxidants such as luteolin might secure your skin from the inside and avoid uv-induced damage. Still, the same may not go for taking supplements.

Research studies on mice have validated this effect of luteolin. It reversed skin aging (by obstructing mmp-1 expression) and even avoided skin cancer.

Effects on testosterone

In cell-based research studies, luteolin acted as an aromatase inhibitor. By blocking aromatase, it may lower the conversion of male sex hormones to estrogens.

In one animal study, researchers have actually integrated luteolin with an aromatase inhibitor drug to reduce its side effects in cancer treatment.

By blocking aromatase, luteolin might likewise work as a testosterone booster. Still, clinical trials have not investigated any of these results, so they stay in the domain of theory till more research appears.

Luteolin increased testosterone levels and avoided testicle shrinking in rats exposed to strong electro-magnetic (em) fields. Mobile phones are one potential source of em field exposure.

Luteolin blocks aromatase in cell research studies, but it is unclear whether it has this result in people or perhaps in animals.

Cancer research

The findings gone over listed below originate from animal and cell-based research study just. They must assist more research, however you shouldn’t translate them as encouraging of the real anticancer impacts in human beings. Luteolin supplements can not avoid or deal with any sort of cancer.

In studies on mice and other lab animals, luteolin prevented the growth of:.

  • Prostate cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Liver cancer

Cells studies have actually included pancreatic and brain cancer to the list of luteolin possible targets. According to this research, luteolin could even combat drug-resistant cancer cells and boost the impacts of chemotherapy without considerable negative effects.

There is currently no place near enough proof to suggest luteolin for the prevention or treatment of cancer, however research study is continuous.

Limitations and cautions

Despite the appealing outcomes of various animal and cell-based research studies, you shouldn’t translate them as encouraging of any health advantage up until more research study is done.

Typical dietary consumption of luteolin can’t match the doses utilized in initial scientific research, and the body quickly simplifies, which is another significant issue. [6]

Endocrine disrupting activities of the flavonoid nutraceuticals luteolin and quercetin

Dietary plant flavonoids have been proposed to add to cancer prevention, neuroprotection, and cardiovascular health through their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and antiproliferative activities. As a consequence, flavonoid supplements are aggressively marketed by the nutraceutical industry for many functions, including pediatric applications, despite insufficient understanding of their worth and drawbacks. We reveal that two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, are promiscuous endocrine disruptors. These flavonoids show progesterone villain activity beneficial in a breast cancer design but negative in an endometrial cancer design. Simultaneously, luteolin has potent estrogen agonist activity while quercetin is substantially less effective. These outcomes highlight the promise and danger of flavonoid nutraceuticals and recommend care in supplements beyond levels attained in a healthy, plant-rich diet. [7]

Kids with autism spectrum conditions, who enhanced with a luteolin-containing dietary formulation, show lowered serum levels of tnf and il-6

Autism spectrum conditions (asds) have actually been connected with brain swelling as shown by microglia activation, as well as brain expression and increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 (il-6) and growth necrosis element (tnf). Here we report that serum levels of il-6 and tnf were elevated (61.95 ± 94.76 pg ml − 1 and 313.8 ± 444.3 pg ml − 1, respectively) in the same accomplice of patients with raised serum levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) and neurotensin (nt), while il-9, il-31 and il-33 were not various from controls. The raised crh and nt levels did not change after treatment with a luteolin-containing dietary formula. However, the mean serum il-6 and tnf levels decreased significantly (p= 0.036 and p= 0.015, respectively) at the end of the treatment period (26 weeks) as compared with levels at the start; these reductions were strongly associated with kids whose behavior improved the most after luteolin formula treatment. Our outcomes indicate that there stand out subgroups of kids within the asds that may be recognizable through serum levels of il-6 and tnf and that these cytokines may make up distinct prognostic markers for at least the useful result of luteolin solution. [8]

Luteolin hinders cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells through downregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

Luteolin is a flavonoid, which has been thoroughly investigated due to its antitumor impacts; however, the hidden systems of its action stay mainly unidentified. Today study aimed to investigate the role of luteolin in breast cancer (bc), and explored how luteolin reduces the growth and induces the apoptosis of bc cells. The mts assay was utilized to identify the anticancer activity of luteolin. Colony development and transwell assays were carried out to evaluate the effects of luteolin on cell growth and invasion. Cell cycle development and apoptosis were examined by circulation cytometry. In addition, western blotting was performed to examine cellular apoptosis and signaling paths elicited by luteolin. The present study revealed that the expansion of the bc cell line mda‑mb‑231 was successfully reduced by luteolin in a dose‑dependent way. In addition, luteolin was revealed to increase apoptotic rates in bc cells. Dose‑dependent cell cycle arrest in s phase was observed following treatment with luteolin in mda‑mb‑231 cells. Mechanistically, luteolin minimized telomerase levels in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, luteolin prevented phosphorylation of the nuclear factor‑κb inhibitor α and its target gene c‑myc, to reduce human telomerase reverse transcriptase (htert) expression, which encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Collectively, the outcomes of today study showed that luteolin might inhibit bc cell growth by targeting htert, suggesting that the system of htert regulation by luteolin might validate further study concerning its potential as a healing target for bc treatment. [9]

The dietary flavonoid, luteolin, adversely affects neuronal distinction

Luteolin, a polyphenolic plant flavonoid, has actually been attributed with various helpful homes like anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory action. Luteolin has actually been reported previously to be neuroprotective in designs of spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury and also causes neurite outgrowth in pc12 cells. Nevertheless, the result of luteolin on early differentiation, which might be important for its useful results, is unknown. In this report, we show that luteolin adversely impacts early differentiation of embryonic stem cells, hindering the formation of embryoid bodies. At later phases of differentiation, luteolin particularly inhibits neuronal distinction, where the expression of early neuronal markers is suppressed, whereas luteolin treatment does not prevent expression of meso- and endodermal markers. Even more, in a developing zebrafish design, luteolin treatment causes less varieties of mitotic cells in the brain. These specific results of luteolin on neuronal differentiation might perhaps be because of its ability to inhibit the lysine acetyltransferase, p300, because the structurally carefully associated p300 non-inhibitor flavonoid, apigenin, does not prevent neuronal distinction. These results reveal that luteolin worries neuronal distinction of embryonic stem cells. [10]

Adverse effects

Luteolin displays numerous useful anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, estrogen inhibition and neuro-protective markers.

This equates to assisting those suffering from chronic illness, autism and even low testosterone.

Equally important, these therapeutic results are met little to no adverse effects.

Take home

Our first concern was how luteolin effects levels of testosterone.

It has been developed that luteolin safeguards the function of the testes by harnessing its anti-oxidant results.

It likewise adds to hormonal agent balance by avoiding the aromatase enzymes from transforming precious testosterone to estrogen.

Nevertheless, additional research in to luteolin has also unearthed its other qualities.

It has powerful anti-inflammatory results that can eliminate cells to treat cancer while having the ability to enhance the condition of autism in kids.

All of this protective power from a variety of natural plant, nuts and fruit sources.

This advantage includes little to no undesirable adverse effects. [11]

Further negative effects of luteolin

Luteolin is typically safe to consume. Adverse effects may occur in some people, particularly those who take the flavonoid in high dosages as a dietary supplement, but these are unusual and poorly understood. In one mouse study, luteolin intensified chemical-induced colitis, but whether this applies to individuals remains to be seen.

A cell line research study suggests that luteolin (and quercetin) “show progesterone villain activity beneficial in a breast cancer model but unhealthy in an endometrial cancer model.” Nevertheless, this is simply a cell line research study, and it just suggests caution with consuming luteolin via supplement, not from a plant-rich diet.

One openlabel pilot research study on children with autism spectrum condition (aud) recommends that luteolin might have both positive and negative impacts, as adaptive performance (how well an individual manages common needs in life and how independent they are) enhanced, but their irritation increased also.

Talk to your physician prior to taking luteolin supplements. Like the majority of dietary supplements, luteolin supplements have not gotten fda approval. Additionally, luteolin supplements might not be safe to take if you are taking blood pressure medications, calcium channel blockers and specific other prescription drugs.

Rule of thumb: the most safe method to experience any plant substance is straight from the natural source, not from a tablet. [12]

Realities of luteolin

Luteolin is a chemical that is classified as a citrus bioflavonoid. It is a yellow crystal in pure kind, which is typical for flavonoids. Luteolin has many usages as a health supplement due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory homes. These homes permit luteolin to scavenge reactive compounds containing oxygen and nitrogen, which can trigger cellular damage. Additional biological results of luteolin include the activation of the dopamine transporter.

Luteolin is produced by lots of plants, a number of which are edible. Substantial dietary sources of luteolin consist of citrus fruits, particularly oranges. Broccoli, carrots, celery and green pepper are veggies that also consist of luteolin. Herbs with luteolin include parsley, peppermint, rosemary and oregano. Peanut hulls are one of the most essential industrial sources of luteolin. These hulls are an economical source considering that they’re a by-product of processed peanuts.

Ethanol reflux is a typical method of drawing out luteolin from peanut hulls. This procedure essentially includes blending the powdered hulls with 70 percent ethanol to obtain a liquid/solid ratio of 20:1. This mixture is then warmed at 85 degrees celsius for at least 1.5 hours. The vapor that comes off the mixture is high in luteolin, which can be additional focused to a high level of purity. [13]


Interactions between dietary flavonoids apigenin or luteolin and chemotherapeutic drugs to potentiate anti-proliferative effect on human pancreatic cancer cells, in vitro

The goals were to evaluate the potential of dietary flavonoids apigenin (api) and luteolin (lut) to enhance the anti-proliferative effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on bxpc-3 human pancreatic cancer cells and to examine the potential molecular mechanism of action. Synchronised treatment or pretreatment (0, 6, 24 and 42 h) of flavonoids and chemotherapeutic drugs and various concentrations (0-50 μm) were evaluated utilizing the mts cell expansion assay. Simultaneous treatment with either flavonoid (0,13, 25 or 50 μm) and chemotherapeutic drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-fu, 50 μm) or gemcitabine (gem, 10 μm) for 60 h resulted in less-than-additive impact (p<< 0.05). Pretreatment for 24 h with 13 μm of either api or lut, followed by gem for 36 h was optimum to prevent cell proliferation. Pretreatment of cells with 11-19 μm of either flavonoid for 24 h resulted in 59-73% development inhibition when followed by gem (10 μm, 36 h). Lut (15 μm, 24 h) pretreatment followed by gem (10 μm, 36 h), significantly reduced protein expression of nuclear gsk-3β and nf-κb p65 and increased pro-apoptotic cytosolic cytochrome c. Pretreatment of human pancreatic cancer cells bxpc-3 with low concentrations of api or lut effectively help in the anti-proliferative activity of chemotherapeutic drugs. [14]

Indications you might require luteolin

Poor neurological functions are typically the most substantial indicators that you might require luteolin, specifically if you are over the age of 50. These functions consist of memory, finding out and motor abilities. Indications of oxidative stress such as skin lesions and wrinkles are a few of the more visible signs that you may require luteolin. Inflammatory conditions that affect the nerve system are a few of the chronic indications that luteolin may benefit you. Auto-immune disorders might likewise indicate that you require extra luteolin. [15]

Why you should take luteolin with pea?

Luteolin is thought to work effectively with pea to eliminate neuroinflammation and oxidative tension.

This coadministration has a remarkable effect than use of the particles alone.

Pea and luteolin substantially reduce the neuroinflammation and apoptosis pathways. They modulate cytokine release and activation of astrocytes and glial cells, which decreases oxidative stress. Pea and luteolin boost expression of neurotrophic aspects and boost regrowth of nerve cells.

Those that have actually suffered a stroke that were treated with co-pea/luteolin likewise had gains in cognitive function, muscle spasticity improvement and mobility. [16]


The beneficial properties of luteolin have actually been known for several years and are mainly related to the decrease of swelling and the protection of the body from oxidative stress.

In fact, luteolin belongs of many herbs used in traditional chinese medicine to minimize inflammation levels, treat high blood pressure, and other conditions. [17]


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