Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tree native to Southeast Asia. The leaves contain a chemical called mitragynine, which works like opioids such as morphine.

Kratom has pain-relieving results like opioid drugs. It also has a number of the very same serious safety issues as other opioids.

Individuals typically use kratom for withdrawal from heroin, morphine, and other opioid drugs, as well as cough, depression, stress and anxiety, and lots of other conditions, however there is no good clinical evidence to support these usages. Utilizing kratom can likewise be unsafe.

Kratom is prohibited in some states and countries due to serious safety concerns. The United States FDA has cautioned customers to avoid using products containing kratom. [2]


Kratom is a tree that grows wild in the tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The trees are native to nations such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The surrounding nations and provinces in the region are likewise home to the native types. All of those territories offer the much-needed climate and environmental conditions that are required for the plant to flourish in the wilderness.

The leaves of a kratom tree were utilized for generations by rural peasants in that area of the world as a natural remedy to fight pain, tiredness, diarrhea, and as a substitute for opium. We likewise discover it was utilized by natives in religious ceremonies and to unwind after operating in the uncompromising heat outside on the farms.

But even though the tree’s leaves were called a folk solution to residents in the area for centuries, it never acquired any traction in western civilization till Peter Willem Korthals– a botanist with the Dutch East India Service– found its presence in 1839. Korthals originally created the tree with the name Stephegyne speciosa. The scientific name and classification went through numerous iterations throughout the years until George Darby Haviland, a British cosmetic surgeon, offered it the name in 1859 that we still understand it as today: Mitragyna speciosa.

The plant would soon fade into obscurity afterward till we see a renewal of interest in the alkaloids discovered inside the plant at the beginning of the 21st century, played in part by the ongoing opioid epidemic common in American culture. [3]


Kratom has dark green oval-acuminate leaves and yellow globular flowers.

Kratom flowers and foliage

Mitragyna speciosa is an evergreen tree in the genus Mitragyna that can grow to a height of 25 m (82 ft). Its trunk may grow to a 0.9 m (3 ft) size. The trunk is typically directly, and the external bark is smooth and grey. The leaves are dark green and shiny and can grow to over 14– 20 cm (5.5– 7.9 in) long and 7– 12 cm (2.8– 4.7 in) broad when fully open, are ovate-acuminate in shape, and opposite in development pattern, with 12– 17 pairs of veins. The flowers, which are deep yellow, grow in clusters of 3 at the ends of the branches. The calyx-tube is 2 mm (0.08 in) long and has five lobes; the corolla-tube is 2.5– 3 millimetres (0.098– 0.12 in) long.

Mitragyna speciosa is indigenous to Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Papua New Guinea. It was first officially explained by the Dutch colonial botanist Pieter Korthals in 1839, who named it Stephegyne speciosa; it was renamed and reclassified numerous times before George Darby Haviland supplied the last name and classification in 1859. [4]

Working mechanism

The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (frequently known as kratom), a tree endogenous to parts of Southeast Asia, have been used typically for their stimulant, mood-elevating, and analgesic results and have just recently attracted substantial attention due to increased use in Western cultures as an alternative medicine. The plant’s active alkaloid constituents, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, have been shown to regulate opioid receptors, acting as partial agonists at mu-opioid receptors and competitive villains at kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Additionally, both alkaloids are G protein-biased agonists of the mu-opioid receptor and therefore, might induce less breathing anxiety than classical opioid agonists. The Mitragyna alkaloids also appear to exert varied activities at other brain receptors (including adrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic receptors), which might explain the complex pharmacological profile of raw kratom extracts, although characterization of impacts at these other targets stays incredibly restricted. Through allometric scaling, doses of pure mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine utilized in animal studies can be connected to single doses of raw kratom plant frequently taken in by human beings, allowing initial interpretation of anticipated behavioral and physiological effects in man based on this preclinical data and comparison to both anecdotal human experience and multiple epidemiological studies. Kratom direct exposure alone has actually not been causally related to human casualties to date. Nevertheless, additional research is needed to clarify the complex system of action of the Mitragyna alkaloids and open their full restorative potential. [5]


Kratom preparations contain a number of phytochemicals in varying ratios rendering their correct pharmacological examination tough. Human clinical research studies are limited.

In general, the impacts of kratom in humans are dose-dependent: small doses produce ‘cocaine-like’ stimulation while larger does trigger ‘morphine-like’ sedative-narcotic results.

After taking a few grams of dried leaves, the invigorating effects and ecstasy are felt within 10 minutes and last for one to one and half hours. Kratom users report increased work capacity, alertness, sociability and sometimes heightened libido. The students are generally normal or very somewhat contracted; blushing may be noted. In one of the few human scientific experiments, a 50 mg oral dosage of mitragynine produced motor excitement, followed by giddiness, loss of motor coordination (positive Romberg’s test), and tremblings of the extremities and face. For regular kratom users, loss of weight, tiredness, constipation, and hyperpigmentation of the cheek may be notable negative effects. The pharmacological system responsible for stimulant activity is unclear.

Kratom taken in big, sedating dosages corresponding to 10– 25 g of dried leaves might at first produce sweating, dizziness, nausea and dysphoria however these effects are shortly superseded with calmness, bliss and a dreamlike state that last for up to 6 hours. Contracted students (miosis) are noted.

Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, the two alkaloids mainly responsible for the results of kratom, are selective and full agonists of the μ-subtype opioid receptor (MOR). The receptor agonist impact of kratom alkaloids is antagonised by the opioid receptor villain naloxone. In addition, 5-HT2a and postsynaptic α2-adrenergic receptors, along with neuronal Ca2+ channels are also associated with the special medicinal and behavioural activity of mitragynine.

In animal studies, the antinociceptive and cough-suppressant impacts of mitragynine were comparable to those of codeine. In mice, 7-hydroxymitragynine was a number of times more potent analgesic than morphine even upon oral administration.

Kratom is somewhat hazardous to animals. Mice chronically treated with 7-hydroxymitragynine established tolerance, cross-tolerance to morphine and withdrawal signs that could be precipitated by naloxone administration.

Regular kratom usage may produce dependence. The withdrawal symptoms in people are fairly mild and usually diminish within a week. Craving, weakness and sleepiness, stress and anxiety, restlessness, rhinorrhea, myalgia, queasiness, sweating, muscle pain, jerky movements of the limbs, tremor in addition to sleep disruptions and hallucination might happen. Treatment, if needed, may consist of dihydrocodeine-lofexidine mix, non-steroidal antiinflammatory representatives, antidepressants and/or anxiolytics.

The metabolism of mitragynine in humans occurs via hydrolysis of the side-chain ester, O-demethylation of the methoxy groups, oxidative and/or reductive transformations, and the formation of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. In a guy who fatally overdosed propylhexedrine and kratom, the postmortem mitragynine concentrations varied from 0.01 mg/kg to 1.20 mg/l.

The intake of kratom concomitantly with other drugs can provoke serious adverse effects. In fact, unfavorable drug interactions involving kratom tea taken with carisoprodol, modafinil, propylhexedrine or Datura stramonium have actually been reported. A deadly case in the United States included a blend of kratom, fentanyl, diphenhydramine, caffeine and morphine offered as organic drug. [6]

Uses of kratom

At low doses, kratom has actually been reported to work like a stimulant. People who have actually utilized low dosages generally report having more energy, being more alert, and feeling more sociable. At higher dosages, kratom has been reported as being sedative, producing blissful results, and dulling emotions and experiences.

The main active ingredients of kratom are the alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. There is evidence that these alkaloids can have analgesic (pain eliminating), anti-inflammatory, or muscle relaxant impacts. For this reason, kratom is typically used to alleviate signs of fibromyalgia.

The plant’s dark green leaves are generally dried and either crushed or powdered. You can discover prepared kratom powders, generally green or light brown in color. These powders also include extracts from other plants.

Kratom is likewise offered in paste, capsule, and tablet form. In the United States, kratom is primarily brewed as a tea for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal.

Stimulant results

According to the European Tracking Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), a little dosage that produces stimulant results is simply a couple of grams. The results generally occur within 10 minutes after ingesting it and can last up to 1 1/2 hours. These results can include:.

  • awareness
  • sociability
  • giddiness
  • lowered motor coordination

Sedative results

A larger dose of between 10 and 25 grams of dried leaves can have a sedative impact, with sensations of peace and ecstasy. This might last for up to six hours. [7]

Benefits of kratom

When consumed at low dosages, kratom tends to display symptoms comparable to a mild stimulant. Numerous users report an abrupt burst of energy, focus, mental clarity and a sense of increased sociability after consuming this herbal supplement. The energy can be compared to caffeine high. If you up the dosage, the results may lean towards a more sedative scale. It might make a periodic user feel mildly dull (mentally) and physically.

The primary active alkaloids responsible for the majority of physiological modifications happening upon usage are mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. These alkaloids contribute to several health benefits some of which are–.

Kratom could discomfort and inflammation

A study from 2017 shed some light on kratom’s immunity-enhancing and anti-inflammatory results. Numerous kratom users would swear that this herbal supplement helps them rid of years old pains and aches. It’s not uncommon for individuals to switch to opioids and nonprescription pills/drugs to relieve the discomfort.

With that stated, kratom could use a more natural method to handle or handle the discomfort and swelling. While we do require more significant proof that might help bring kratom in the mainstream market, anecdotal proof is stacking up every day.

Many people experiencing fibromyalgia and chronic discomforts discover relief from HCG injections. Kratom could, to a particular degree, have comparable pain-relieving results.

Kratom might offer some relief from anxiety

History has it that the locals of nations like Thailand and Malaysia, where kratom originates from would chew a couple of kratom leaves before participating in celebrations or occasions. The concept was to stay calmer and more unwinded which made them more friendly and less nervous.

To this day, kratom is mostly utilized for its possible capability to control traffic of ideas. Lots of people feel that kratom helps them feel more friendly and talkative. Stress and anxiety is an international health concern, and while discussing the tools to handle stress and anxiety, including kratom into that discussion might be worth it.

It might lend an assisting hand in handling anxiety

The way kratom works its method into the system is pretty much like an opioid, even though it’s not opioid-like codeine and morphine. However, the results are rather similar. The active alkaloid, mitragynine binds itself with opioid receptors therefore rendering the feeling of pain relief and relief. This action might be responsible for the anti-anxiety and antidepressant-like results as numerous users would claim. Currently, there’s extremely little research study material out there on kratom’s effects on state of mind and stress and anxiety.

It is very important to point out that not all stress and not all kinds of kratom products might render anti-anxiety effects. A user would need to do research and learn an appealing item in the market. It’s likewise essential to develop a perfect individual dosage to anticipate any of those impacts. Therefore, it’s important to buy kratom and kratom products from a trusted source/vendor just. It’s likewise important to consume it in moderate doses. Kratom might keep anxiety and depression at bay for a short while.

It may assist get rid of specific dependencies

In May 2019, International Journal of Drug Policy released a paper. The objective was to answer some of the common questions surrounding kratom and kratom use. The researchers observed mixed results. While there is no dearth of anecdotal evidence and reports floating all across the web, we do require more regulated clinical trials that are needed for regulative authorizes like the FDA. Based just on those scientific trials can kratom certify as a safe and effective drug for getting rid of opioids and other addictions.

It’s fascinating that even in the middle of an obvious absence of big scale studies, users continue to switch to kratom for getting rid of dependencies. A small study from 2009 by Malaysia men demonstrated how kratom helped with withdrawal signs.

Kratom can be an excellent energy booster

It’s important to keep in mind that kratom has different strains. Each strain brings various properties. While some might make you feel dull, others can have coffee-like effects. They may make you feel more energetic and determined to do daily tasks more easily. Many individuals are beginning to change their morning coffee with a cup of kratom tea.

Kratom works by enhancing particular metabolic procedures. This leads to much better blood circulation and an increase in oxygenated blood supply. All of that combined can lead to a burst of energy. Thai kratom, Maeng Da, and white vein kratom could be potentially good for victims of fatigue syndrome. [8]

Kratom tea

With this easy Kratom Tea dish, you can take pleasure in the benefits of Kratom Powder in a soft, delicious drink. Whether the tea is hot or refreshingly cool like iced tea, it does not matter – the impact will not lose its power if you put your Kratom in a tea.

The Kratom leaves of Southeast Asia are well-known for their lots of benefits. For thousands of years, indigenous cultures have actually chewed on the leaves, dried them and made them into a powder, and boiled in a ritualistic tea. Why? The heating of Kratom permits the powerful alkaloids to be launched faster than just chewing on fresh leaves. As quickly as it enters into the water, the alkaloids are soaked up into your blood stream faster.

Thankfully, boiled water does not harm the psychedelic alkaloids in Kratom. Unlike plants like poppy, Kratom alkaloids are incredibly stable in temperatures far beyond what your water can reach when boiling. [9]

Health benefits of kratom tea

Although some health blog writers have actually recommended that Kratom tea brings health benefits, there is extremely little reliable scientific proof to support such claims.

One 2017 survey suggests that Kratom usage may relieve pain, and may ease the symptoms of mood conditions, such as anxiety and depression.

However, surveys are based on self-reporting. This makes them incorrect and more easily vulnerable to predisposition.

Others have claimed that Kratom tea might aid with signs of opioid withdrawal. This is due to the fact that Kratom leaves includes mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, chemicals that connect with the opioid receptors in a person’s brain.

Animal studies have revealed that Kratom may enhance opioid tolerance in mice. However, this does not always mean that comparable effects would take place in people. [10]

How do you make strong kratom tea?

When you make Katom tea, you need to avoid boiling the water. Kratom includes alkaloids and when they are boiled, they can break down. You then lose the impacts that the alkaloids supply. What you need to do is use hot water.

This can be boiled water that has actually been permitted to cool off or water that is just below the boiling point. You will get strong Kratom tea when you do it that way. The amount of water you put in your Kratom tea depends upon the dose you are taking.

The majority of Kratom veins have a bitter taste. When they are concentrated significance with less water per dose, they can be rather unpalatable. An excellent way to get around this is to include more water. One to 4 cups per dose is ideal. Simply make certain that you complete all of it.

When you take Kratom, it is likewise important to remain hydrated throughout the day. Consume great deals of water throughout the day and you’ll be great.

Here are some Kratom tea dishes that you can give a try. They are terrific method to experience Kratom tea while lowering the bitter taste that it has.

Apple cider kratom tea

The very first Kratom tea dish is the apple cider vinegar recipe. It’s an excellent way of getting the most out of Kratom tea. As we have actually already discussed, acids assist to support the mitragynine in Kratom. It implies that you get the best out of it.

It is thought that the potency of Kratom will be considerably affected by really warm water. Adding an acid assists keep them intact. It likewise assists bring out the alkaloids from the Kratom.

For this recipe you will need:.

Put the water into a pot or kettle. Bring it to a simmer just under boiling. Add some apple cider vinegar to the water. Switch off the heat on the stove and include 5 grams of Kratom to this mix. Allow it to sit for 10 to 20 minutes.

By this time, the Kratom would have settled at the bottom of the pot or kettle. Pour the liquid into a container. You then require to include some baking soda to the solution. This will take away the acidic taste from your Kratom tea.

Make certain to stir or shake the tea after every sip. This is performed in order to ensure that the mitragynine mixes with the water. It is denser than water and tends to settle at the bottom of the mixture. Shaking or stirring makes sure that it keeps well mixed.

If you wish to make this mixture a bit more palatable, you can include some honey or sugar to it. Honey is best as it is a natural item and won’t have the unfavorable effects connected with sugar.

Lemon/lime kratom tea

Another fantastic method to make sure that your Kratom tea maintains its alkaloids composition and they do not break down instead of including apple cider vinegar is by adding lemon to it. This will avoid the alkaloids from breaking down under intense heat.

There are numerous ways to make Kratom tea. Here is an excellent method to make some Kratom tea. This is by no implies a fast procedure where you simply dump your Kratom and other ingredients into a tea pot and brew for a few minutes.

You require a minimum of an hour to prepare this Kratom tea. Here is a list of the things you’ll require:.


  • 5 grams crushed Kratom leaves or powder
  • 2 tablespoons of lemon/lime juice or apple cider vinegar
  • 2 cups of water
  • A filter or strainer
  • Honey
  • Ginger powder


Put your Kratom and lemon/lime juice or apple cider vinegar into a kettle or pot. Let them soak for 20 minutes. Once you have actually done that, add your water. Let this mixture simmer for about 20 minutes. As soon as that it is done simmering, let it high for even more 20 minutes.

This process helps get all the alkaloids out of the Kratom leaves into the liquid. Your next action is to put a generous amount of honey and ginger into the jar or container you wish to store the Kratom in.

Put your tea from the pot through a filter into the container that you want to save it in. Seal the container and leave it in the fridge overnight. This more allows all the components to mix in nicely. This Kratom Tea dish is great for a number of reasons.

It’s rapidly taken in into your blood stream. This is because all the alkaloids have been extracted and your body doesn’t have to do the extra work of pulling them from the leaves.

Secondly, it tastes a lot much better than having to take Kratom as a paste. The bitter taste does not entirely disappear but it is considerably decreased.

Kratom tea can be cooled and taken later. When compared to other Kratom extract products on the market like the liquids, Kratom tea has actually shown to be of the exact same or similar effectiveness. You are also ensured that there are no ingredients or preservatives when you make your own Kratom tea at home.

Another factor that Kratom tea is proving to be popular with the Kratom crowd instead of paste is since the sludge from Kratom leaves or powder can be difficult to swallow. When you take Kratom as a paste, it’s best to blend it with warm water instead of cold.

When people take it in this manner, they create a paste which they chug down followed by water or fruit juice. This is because the paste is both hard to swallow as well as bitter. Taking Kratom tea means that you don’t need to deal with these problems. [11]

Side effects of kratom

The most typical negative effects of kratom are:

  • Transformed psychological status.
  • Anxiety and irritability.
  • Deception and hallucination.
  • Sleepiness and sedation.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Regular urination.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Tongue feeling numb.

Other severe kratom side effects consist of:

  • Heart concerns, such as cardiovascular disease, abnormal heart rhythms and hypertension.
  • Encephalopathy (brain disease).
  • Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
  • Liver damage and liver failure.
  • Rhabdomyolysis (A condition that leads to kidney damage when muscles disintegrate and release a protein into the blood).
  • Respiratory anxiety (difficulty breathing).

Long-term kratom users may likewise experience:

  • Increased cheek coloring.
  • Anorexia nervosa.
  • Weight loss. [12]

It is essential to know kratom dosage

Kratom dose is essential, as it will identify the result you get. Various strains have various impacts from bulk kratom pills, so starting little will help you figure out the best way to get the very best outcomes. Lower dosages tend to supply energy-boosting and stimulating results, while higher doses produce more relaxing results. While these are simply general guidelines, they are still practical for brand-new users. Simply keep in mind to speak with a healthcare supplier prior to beginning any new supplement or drug programs.

The very first time you attempt kratom, you should take one to two grams. This amount will assist you get used to the herb and figure out how much you require. Once you’ve established a tolerance, you can increase your dosage appropriately. In general, you ought to take two to four grams of kratom a day. The maximum dosage for kratom is four grams. However, some users discover that taking in kratom three to six grams daily produces a more powerful effect.

The most affordable kratom dosage is best for newbies

Beginners should begin with the lowest kratom dosage. The majority of professionals suggest taking no more than a number of grams of any particular stress. Later on, you can increase your dose by a half or one complete gram every hour. A lot of routine users take anywhere between 2 and five grams of premium kratom powder a day. There are several factors to consider when choosing the correct kratom dose. The main point to bear in mind is that the correct amount depends on your body type and sensitivity. [13]


Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates) interaction score: Moderate Beware with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Kratom may decrease how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking kratom along with some medications that are changed by the liver may increase the results and side effects of these medications. Prior to taking kratom, talk with your doctor if you take any medications that are altered by the liver.

A few of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.

Medications altered by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates) interaction ranking: Moderate Beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Kratom may reduce how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking kratom with these medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and negative effects of these medications. Before taking kratom, speak with your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are altered by the liver.

A few of these medications that are altered by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoin (Dilantin), warfarin (Coumadin), and numerous others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 [CYP2D6] substrates) interaction score: Moderate Beware with this combination. Talk with your health company.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Kratom may reduce how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking kratom in addition to some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Prior to taking kratom, talk with your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are altered by the liver.

Some medications altered by the liver consist of amitriptyline (Elavil), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), flecainide (Tambocor), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), ondansetron (Zofran), paroxetine (Paxil), risperidone (Risperdal), tramadol (Ultram), venlafaxine (Effexor), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] substrates) interaction rating: Moderate Be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Kratom might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking kratom together with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and negative effects of these medications. Prior to taking kratom, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include cyclosporin (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and numerous others.

Modafinil (Provigil) interaction rating: Moderate Beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Seizures have been reported in an individual who took kratom in addition to the drug modafinil (Provigil). It is not yet known how taking this mix may trigger seizures. Up until more is understood, individuals taking modafinil (Provigil) should prevent using kratom. [14]


Although not an epidemic in its own right, the present trends in kratom usage are cause for gradually growing issue, and it is likely to become a significant public problem in the future if it continues its current trajectory. In looking for to address it, the issue must be comprehended within the higher context of the existing epidemic of opioid abuse, as the desire to alleviate opioid withdrawal signs is a critical element accounting for clients who seek out and abuse kratom. Because it is mostly a repercussion of the opioid crisis, it will be tough to effectively resolve this problem until the larger opioid problem is fixed. Even then, use of kratom will continue amongst non-addicts who wish to abuse it for recreational purposes. In this regard, acting to restrict access might be called for. But even on the occasion that kratom is set up as an illegal drug, it will likely remain available through clandestine negotiations, just as many currently managed illicit substances are. Provided the likelihood of lengthy need for kratom usage, health service providers and medical teachers should take efforts to improve awareness of this still relatively unidentified drug.

In addition to promoting awareness among health care experts, there is a fantastic need for more comprehensive, high-quality studies to much better understand the system of its toxicity and to create specific and credible standards for the management of kratom intake. Clients must be warned of the potential damage kratom postures, including predictable threats such as reliance and toxicity, and unpredictable threats related to item quality and contamination. However, the rising value and interest in this concern provides brand-new opportunities for research study on kratom in the context of opioid pharmacology, and eventually will support the advancement of new and improved analgesic agents. [15]


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