Glucosamine is a natural substance found in cartilage– the difficult tissue that cushions joints.

In supplement form, glucosamine is harvested from shells of shellfish or made in a laboratory. There are numerous types of glucosamine, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetyl glucosamine. These supplements aren’t considered interchangeable.

People use glucosamine sulfate orally to treat a painful condition brought on by swelling, breakdown and ultimate loss of cartilage (osteoarthritis).


Research on glucosamine usage for specific conditions shows:.

Osteoarthritis. Oral use of glucosamine sulfate might provide some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Some research shows that it might also assist slow knee joint degeneration related to osteoarthritis. More studies are needed to determine the advantages of glucosamine sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis of the hip, spine or hand.

Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research study suggests that oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride may minimize discomfort related to rheumatoid arthritis. Nevertheless, scientists didn’t see an improvement in inflammation or the variety of painful or inflamed joints.

When thinking about glucosamine, read item labels carefully to ensure you select the appropriate kind. There’s less scientific evidence to support making use of N-acetyl glucosamine in treating osteoarthritis, and more research study is needed to verify its advantages. (1 ).


The body utilizes glucosamine to construct and repair cartilage. Cartilage is a flexible, hard, rubbery connective tissue that protects the bones in the joints. It offers padding and avoids the bones from rubbing together. As individuals age, their cartilage can become less versatile and begin to break down. This can cause discomfort, swelling, and tissue damage, which, for instance, happens in osteoarthritis.

There is some proof that glucosamine might slow this procedure and advantage cartilage health.

Glucosamine happens naturally in the body, however levels fall as people get older. In time, the reduction could add to joint deterioration. (2 ).


Glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose) is an endogenous aminomonosaccharide synthesized from glucose and utilized for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans. Glucosamine is present in almost all human tissues, highly focused in connective tissues of the human body, and found at highest concentrations in the cartilage. In people, about 90 percent of glucosamine is absorbed when administered as an oral dose of glucosamine sulfate, and is quickly included into articular cartilage. Glucosamine can be discovered in numerous forms, consisting of sulfate, hydrochloride, N-acetyl-glucosamine, or chlorohydrate salt, and as a dextrorotatory isomer. There is some conflict over which type is most effective. Pooled findings from studies using a specific industrial glucosamine sulfate product called Dona recommend that this formulation reduces osteoarthritis discomfort, whereas other formulas do not.11 Another study carried out in China supplies some evidence that glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate are equally effective.

The sulfate salt of glucosamine types one half of the disaccharide subunit of keratan sulfate, which decreases in patients with osteoarthritis. Hyaluronic acid (discovered in articular cartilage and synovial fluid) is composed of repeating dimeric units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. Possible systems of action for the chondroprotective impact of glucosamine include direct stimulation of chondrocytes, incorporation of sulfur into cartilage, and defense against degradative processes within the body through altered gene expression. The specific system of action for the possible result of glucosamine is unidentified. (3 ).


In natural medicine, advocates claim that glucosamine might assist with the following illness:.

  • Diabetes
  • High cholesterol
  • Inflammation
  • Inflammatory bowel illness (such as ulcerative colitis)
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Temporomandibular joint disorder
  • Health Benefits

Glucosamine has been extensively studied with inconclusive results. It might use health benefits consisting of a decrease in pain, although a 2018 review released in the journal Orthopedics suggests the advantages may be due to a placebo effect.

Here’s a take a look at a few of the essential studies and their findings:.


Glucosamine may be of benefit in the treatment of osteoarthritis, specifically in the knee. In spite of some really positive findings, there likewise a great deal of proof contradicting these claims.

An early report published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Evaluations concluded that some preparations of glucosamine might reduce pain and enhance functioning in individuals with recognized osteoarthritis. The research study evaluated 20 randomized regulated research studies involving an overall of 2,570 grownups.

Among the largest glucosamine studies, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), questioned these outcomes. Called the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), the two-year study compared the efficiency of glucosamine and chondroitin in 662 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and concluded that neither showed any advantage in alleviating knee discomfort. Subsequent studies have provided no clearer proof of any benefits. Nevertheless, some researchers still contend that glucosamine not just helps ease arthritis pain but also avoids cartilage loss.

According to a six-year study released in Arthritis Care & & Research study, cartilage loss seemed slowed in adults with knee osteoarthritis who had actually taken glucosamine and chondroitin for up to 6 years. The advantages appeared to be higher the longer the supplements are taken.

Additional research is required to understand these contradictions.


Glucosamine is perhaps efficient for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis, according to a small study released in the Journal of Reseach in Pharmacy Practice. The trial included 60 adults with TMJ who were offered either glucosamine, ibuprofen, or a placebo for 90 days. Although glucosamine and ibuprofen were both more effective in alleviating discomfort than a placebo, ibuprofen proved superior to glucosamine.

Low Neck And Back Pain

Glucosamine may not benefit people with persistent lower neck and back pain and degenerative back osteoarthritis, according to a 2010 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The six-month trial, involving 250 individuals with both conditions, concluded that glucosamine was no better than the placebo in providing arthritis pain relief. (4 ).

Inadequate Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for …

Joint pain caused by drugs that lower estrogen levels. Early research suggests that taking a mix of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in 2 or 3 divided doses daily for 24 weeks reduces pain in women taking drugs that lower estrogen levels for early stage breast cancer.

Unpleasant bladder syndrome (Interstitial cystitis). Early research suggests that taking a particular product including glucosamine sulfate, salt hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, quercetin, and rutin (cystoprotek, Tischon Corporation, Westbury, NY) four times daily for 12 months decreases signs of painful bladder syndrome.

Joint pain. Research shows that taking a specific item containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in three divided doses daily for 8 weeks reduces joint discomfort. But this item doesn’t seem to assist joint tightness or function.

Knee pain. Some research shows that taking a specific item consisting of glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Assistance, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in 3 divided doses daily for 8 weeks reduces joint discomfort in individuals with knee pain. However this item doesn’t appear to assist joint stiffness or function. Other early research study reveals that taking 1500 mg of glucosamine sulfate daily for 28 days does not decrease knee pain in professional athletes following a knee injury. However, it does appear to improve knee movement.

Several sclerosis. Early research shows that taking 1000 mg of glucosamine sulfate by mouth daily for 6 months may lower the relapse of numerous sclerosis.

Jaw discomfort (Temporomandibular disorder). Some research study shows that taking glucosamine sulfate works about along with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, etc) For relieving jaw pain. In some individuals, discomfort relief appears to continue for approximately 90 days after glucosamine sulfate is ceased. However, research suggests that when 1200 mg of glucosamine sulfate is taken by mouth daily for 6 months, jaw discomfort and the capability to open the jaw are not improved.

  • Weight-loss.
  • Other conditions. 5

Who Should Take Glucosamine/Chondroitin Sulfate?

Lots of patients who suffer from osteoarthritis may gain from the positive results of taking this supplement. The unpleasant symptoms of osteoarthritis may appear when cartilage becomes worn, and exposed bones begin to rub together. Traditional medicine does not yet have a proven treatment to stop or slow the development of osteoarthritis. Standard medical treatment consists of drug therapy to manage the discomfort connected with osteoarthritis. These treatments are sometimes frustrating for physicians and patients due to the fact that medications might not offer complete relief and can have unwanted side effects. A few of these patients might be candidates for dietary supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.

How Do I Take These Supplements?

Normal dose is 1500mg for glucosamine sulfate and 1200mg for chondroitin sulfate, taken daily. For body weight less than 100 lbs, the dose is generally minimized to 1000mg for glucosamine sulfate and 800mg for chondroitin sulfate.

Duration of treatment has not yet been determined.

Reported improvement (e.g. Reduction in painful signs) differs from three weeks to as much as 8 weeks.

Some research studies have actually revealed continued improvement of signs after oral intake was stopped.

Generally, if there is no discomfort reduction after two months, there is little chance of improvement.

Clients must keep a journal of their symptoms when treatment starts to much better judge any modifications in pain level or joint motion, and this details should be shown their physician. (6 ).

Glucosamine Tied to Heart Advantages

Glucosamine, the dietary supplement widely utilized for arthritic pain, might lower the threat for heart disease, scientists report.

Scientists took a look at 466,039 British males and females, ages 40 to 69, who were devoid of cardiovascular disease at the start of the study. Participants finished detailed health surveys that consisted of information on making use of dietary supplements. Almost 90,000 of them, or 19 percent, reported routine use of glucosamine. The study, in BMJ, tracked the participants’ health for an average of seven years.

Compared to those who did not utilize the supplement, glucosamine users had an 18 percent lower threat of coronary heart problem, and a 15 percent lower threat of any cardiovascular event. There was a weak association with a lowered threat for stroke.

The research study managed for diet, physical activity, smoking, disease history and other attributes.

” This is excellent news for people who take these supplements,” stated the senior author, Lu Qi, a teacher of epidemiology at Tulane University. However before advising its usage, he included, “we truly need additional information from population studies and even more, more solid information from scientific trials.”.

The exact reason for the link is not known, however the scientists recommend that glucosamine may lower swelling by reducing blood levels of C reactive protein, a sign of inflammation, or by mimicking the result of a low-carbohydrate diet, which some research studies have actually recommended is connected with a lower threat of heart disease.

The researchers note that efficiency of glucosamine in clients with osteoarthritis and joint discomfort continues to be discussed. (7 ).

Natural Sources of Glucosamine

Glucosamine is a natural substance found in healthy cartilage– the hard tissue that cushions joints– and particularly in the fluid around the joints.

For dietary supplements, glucosamine is gathered from the shells of shellfish (like shrimp, lobster and crab) or made synthetically in a lab.

There are no healthy food sources of glucosamine aside from shellfish shells, per the Mayo Center. But, there are lots of supplements offered. You will frequently see glucosamine offered in combination with chondroitin sulfate in a supplement type. (8 ).


The Arthritis Foundation lists a suggested dosage of 500 milligrams to 3 grams of glucosamine and chondroitin a day in divided dosages for a minimum of a month.


Think it or not, as mentioned above there are no healthy food sources for glucosamine. Whereas the majority of glucosamine supplements are sourced from shells of shellfish (crabs, lobster, shrimp, and so on), there isn’t a list of vegetables, fruits, or protein options you can take down on your next grocery list. This is most likely another reason why glucosamine supplements are the second most popular dietary supplement taken. Moreover, this is why it’s so important to supplement glucosamine in the first place.

Flex: The Xyngular Option For Optimal Joint Health *

Laborious activity, physical work, natural aging, and even being just a little obese can put a great deal of additional tension on our joints. In fact, being overweight by just 5 pounds may put an additional 15-30 pounds of extra force on your knees. To combat the problems of joint degeneration, to keep your body in motion, to keep you active and versatile, Flex helps lube active joints, nurtures and enhances connective tissues, and helps in reducing joint swelling connected with exercise.

Flex contains no soy, only has to be taken once a day, includes no stimulants like caffeine and green tea, contains zero nuts, utilizes vegetarian capsules, manufactured in the U.S., can be taken on an empty stomach, is a terrific option for post-exercise joint recovery, and can be taken with other Xyngular supplement. Our premium Flex formula of glucosamine and boswellia serrata are one of the most efficient duos on the marketplace to support your joints and help in reducing inflammation typically connected with exercise. (9 ).

Is it safe?

Side-effects, which are usually moderate and irregular, consist of:.

  • Stomach upsets
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhoea
  • Headaches

If you dislike shellfish, you should make sure that you take the shellfish-free range.

You ought to likewise be cautious about taking glucosamine if you have diabetes. Glucosamine might increase your blood glucose level and it might indicate that you need to change your treatment to make sure it carried on working. There are numerous reports of interaction in between glucosamine and anti-diabetic treatments. There are likewise some reports of possible interaction with chemotherapy drugs and drugs that lower blood cholesterol. (10 ).

What is the most crucial details I should know about glucosamine?

Follow all instructions on the item label and plan. Tell each of your doctor about all your medical conditions, allergic reactions, and all medicines you use.

What should I go over with my doctor prior to taking glucosamine?

You should not use this item if you dislike glucosamine.

Ask a physician, pharmacist, or other doctor if it is safe for you to utilize this product if you have:.

  • Diabetes;
  • High cholesterol or triglycerides (a kind of fat in the blood);
  • Cancer;
  • Liver disease;
  • Asthma or other breathing disorder;
  • If you dislike shellfish; or
  • If you take a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven).
  • It is not known whether glucosamine will hurt a coming infant. Do not use this item without medical advice if you are pregnant.
  • Glucosamine might enter breast milk and may harm a nursing infant. Do not utilize this item without medical suggestions if you are breast-feeding a child.
  • Do not give any herbal/health supplement to a child without medical recommendations.

How should I take glucosamine?

When considering the use of natural supplements, look for the advice of your doctor. You might likewise think about consulting a specialist who is trained in the use of herbal/health supplements.

If you choose to utilize glucosamine, utilize it as directed on the bundle or as directed by your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. Do not utilize more of this item than is recommended on the label.

Do not utilize various solutions of glucosamine at the same time without medical suggestions. Using different formulations together increases the danger of an overdose of glucosamine.

This medicine can cause uncommon outcomes with a blood sugar (sugar) test. Do not use this item without a doctor’s guidance if you are diabetic.

If you require surgery, inform the surgeon ahead of time that you are utilizing glucosamine. You might need to stop utilizing the medication for a short time.

It may take up to 8 weeks prior to your symptoms enhance. For best outcomes, keep utilizing glucosamine as directed.Call your medical professional if your symptoms do not improve, or if they become worse while utilizing glucosamine. Store at space temperature far from wetness and heat.

What occurs if I miss out on a dosage?

Skip the missed dosage if it is nearly time for your next scheduled dosage. Do not use extra glucosamine to make up the missed dosage.

What should I prevent while taking glucosamine?

Some glucosamine items likewise consist of manganese. Taking excessive of this mix can cause a manganese overdose. Do not take more than directed on the medicine label.

What other drugs will impact glucosamine?

Other drugs may communicate with glucosamine, consisting of prescription and over the counter medications, vitamins, and herbal items. Inform each of your healthcare service providers about all medications you use now and any medication you start or stop using.

Where can I get more information?

Seek advice from a certified healthcare professional prior to using any herbal/health supplement. Whether you are treated by a medical doctor or a practitioner trained in making use of natural medicines/supplements, ensure all your healthcare providers know about all of your medical conditions and treatments. (11 ).

Special Safety Measures and Cautions

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn’t enough trustworthy details to understand if glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and prevent usage.

Asthma: Glucosamine may make asthma even worse. Up until more is known, people with asthma should beware about taking products which contain glucosamine.

Diabetes: There used to be some concern that glucosamine may increase blood glucose levels. But most research shows that glucosamine does not increase blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes.

Glaucoma: Glucosamine may increase the pressure inside the eye and could worsen glaucoma. If you have glaucoma, speak to your healthcare provider before taking glucosamine.

High cholesterol: There utilized to be some concern that glucosamine might increase cholesterol levels. However the majority of research study reveals that glucosamine doesn’t seem to increase cholesterol levels.

Hypertension: There used to be some concern that glucosamine may increase blood pressure. But a lot of research reveals that glucosamine does not appear to increase blood pressure.

Shellfish allergy: Glucosamine is produced from the shells of shrimp, lobster, and crabs. If you have a shellfish allergic reaction, talk with your healthcare provider prior to utilizing glucosamine.


Major Interaction

Do not take this mix.

Warfarin (Coumadin) communicates with Glucosamine

Warfarin is utilized to slow blood clot. Taking glucosamine with or without chondroitin increases the effects of warfarin. This can increase the danger for major bruising and bleeding. Don’t take glucosamine if you are taking warfarin.

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this mix.

Medications for cancer (Topoisomerase II Inhibitors) communicates with Glucosamine

Some medications for cancer work by decreasing how fast cancer cells can copy themselves. Glucosamine might obstruct these medications from working. Taking glucosamine in addition to some medications for cancer may decrease the efficiency of these medications.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) engages with Glucosamine

Taking glucosamine SULFATE and acetaminophen together might impact how well each works. But more info is needed to understand if this interaction is a huge issue.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) communicates with GLUCOSAMINE

Glucosamine may increase blood sugar levels. Taking glucosamine along with diabetes medications may reduce the results of these medications. Display your blood glucose carefully. (12 ).


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