Fluoride is a kind of the chemical aspect fluorine. It takes place naturally in nature and is discovered in body tissues including calcium, such as bones and teeth.

Fluoride safeguards teeth from the bacteria in plaque. It likewise promotes new bone development. This is different than most medications used for weak bones (osteoporosis), which combat osteoporosis by keeping bone from being broken down.

People typically utilize fluoride to prevent cavities. It is likewise used for tooth plaque, a moderate type of gum illness (gingivitis), osteoporosis, and lots of other conditions, however there is no good scientific proof to support the majority of its other uses.

The FDA warns that swallowing too much toothpaste can increase the risk for tooth staining. But this is likely more of a concern with long-lasting usage instead of inadvertently swallowing it simply when. Likewise, beginning June 2022, fluoride levels in bottled water can not go beyond 0.7 mg per liter and should be stated on the label. [2]

History of fluoride

When it concerns the world of dental health, we speak about fluoride routinely. And although many moms and dads know it’s good for their kids’s teeth, they may not know why. When your kid eats sweet foods, bacteria in their mouths produce acid that can eat away at the minerals on the surface of the teeth. This makes them weaker and increases the opportunities of developing cavities. Fluoride has actually been shown to protect teeth from this decay and can even assist restore the tooth’s surface! This mineral is the very best cavity fighter we have to help keep your whole household’s teeth healthy and strong.

Fluoride is most effective when it comes from both internal and external sources. It can be gotten in two types: topical and systemic. Topical fluorides are used directly to the tooth enamel through fluoride tooth pastes, mouth rinses, and fluoride treatments in a dental workplace like Kid’s Dental Center. Especially for children who are at a moderate-to-high danger of establishing cavities, the professional fluoride treatments our dental experts provide may be recommended every three or six months. The fluoride in this treatment is available in a varnish and generally only takes a couple of minutes to apply to the teeth. Your kid may be asked not to eat or drink for at least 30 minutes afterward to enable their teeth to take in the fluoride and assistance repair any tiny areas of damage.

Systemic fluoride is ingested through sources like fluoridated water and dietary fluoride supplements. Water fluoridation offers regular and constant contact with low levels of fluoride. All water contains some fluoride, and some groundwater and natural springs can have naturally high levels. However, a lot of water will not have adequate naturally taking place fluoride to prevent dental caries. Numerous cities and counties will include and adjust the levels of fluoride found in their water in order to attain the optimal preventative benefits. This community water fluoridation is the most economical approach of delivering fluoride to a large number of people and can lower dental caries by up to 25% in children and grownups.

In addition to a great oral health regimen and routine dental gos to, fluoride can help keep your child’s teeth healthy and strong throughout their lives. However how did we concern discover its advantages? What caused including it in everyday products like toothpaste, or adding it to our water supplies? Let’s have a look at the history of fluoride to learn more!

How fluoride ended up in our supply of water

Like much of contemporary medication, fluoride was come across by chance. In the early 1900’s, a dental expert by the name of Frederick McKay discovered that nearly 90% of the population of a specific Colorado town had mystical brown staining on their teeth. He welcomed fellow dental professional G.V. Black to team up with him on discovering the reason for this phenomenon. Through their research, they found that the staining was the outcome of imperfections in the advancement of the tooth enamel, what is now called fluorosis. They also discovered that people impacted by this staining were remarkably resistant to dental caries.

Eventually, McKay was able to trace the source of this staining to the local supply of water. Thanks to significant natural fluoride deposits across the Western US, the water in this specific Colorado town was specifically abundant in fluoride. However, it wasn’t till the 1940s that this knowledge was used towards enhancing teeth. The Grand Rapids water fluoridation research study was a project covering fifteen years, during which researchers kept track of the rate of tooth decay among nearly 30,000 schoolchildren. After a years, they found that the rate of cavities had decreased by 60% among Grand Rapids kids who were born after water fluoridation started. Based on the success of this pilot research study, many states decided to move on with public water fluoridation programs, decreasing the rates of dental caries amongst their residents, and enhancing their total oral health. Water fluoridation is cost-effective, even for little neighborhoods, and saves both families and the healthcare system cash.

Due to the predominance of acid-producing germs caused by our contemporary diet, fluoride has become crucial to protect the teeth against everyday overuse. Currently, about 75% of the US population are served by community water supply which contain enough fluoride to secure their teeth. Nevertheless, around 100 million Americans still lack access to water with fluoride. Because it has shown benefits, the United States has actually set a national goal for 80% of Americans to have water with enough fluoride to prevent tooth decay by 2020.

Topical application of fluoride

Water fluoridation programs are an extremely important approach of improving our oral health, but they are still a result of the original research study done by McKay and his colleagues. More just recently, researchers have discovered that the protective elements of fluoride are acquired from direct contact with the tooth enamel, toughening it and protecting it against acid. The topical application of fluoride from oral rinses, tooth pastes, and professional fluoride treatments has really been shown to perform more efficiently than the systemic delivery of fluoride through treated water.

A word on fluorosis

Systemic shipment can produce some side effects at high doses, well above what you would discover in public water materials. Fluoride, like any mineral, can be bad for you if you take in excessive. Usually, stained spots and brown staining of the tooth enamel are the most typical indication of too much fluoride usage.

CDC physician with a client

Keeping your kid’s smile strong and healthy with Kid’s Dental Center.

The benefits fluoride attends to children can’t be beat! This assists set them up for a strong, healthy smile throughout their life. For children ages 1-8, fluoride assists to enhance the adult teeth that are establishing under the gums. For older kids, fluoride supports tooth enamel and can help restore it in certain cases. This causes fewer and less serious cavities, less need for fillings and tooth elimination, and less dental caries in general. [3]


Fluorine is approximated to be the 13th-most abundant element in Earth’s crust and is commonly dispersed in nature, totally in the form of fluorides. The large bulk is held in mineral deposits, the most commercially important of which is fluorite (CaF2). Natural wear and tear of some type of rocks, as well as human activities, releases fluorides into the biosphere through what is sometimes called the fluorine cycle.

In water

Fluoride is naturally present in groundwater, fresh and saltwater sources, as well as in rainwater, particularly in urban areas. Seawater fluoride levels are typically in the range of 0.86 to 1.4 mg/L, and average 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter). For contrast, chloride concentration in seawater has to do with 19 g/L. The low concentration of fluoride reflects the insolubility of the alkaline earth fluorides, e.g., CaF2.

Concentrations in fresh water differ more considerably. Surface area water such as rivers or lakes normally includes between 0.01– 0.3 mg/L. Groundwater (well water) concentrations vary a lot more, depending on the presence of local fluoride-containing minerals. For example, natural levels of under 0.05 mg/L have actually been detected in parts of Canada however as much as 8 mg/L in parts of China; in general levels rarely surpass 10 mg/liter.

In parts of Asia the groundwater can contain precariously high levels of fluoride, resulting in major health issue.

Worldwide, 50 million people get water from water materials that naturally have near the “optimum level”.

In other areas the level of fluoride is very low, in some cases leading to fluoridation of public water products to bring the level to around 0.7– 1.2 ppm.

Mining can increase local fluoride levels.

Fluoride can be present in rain, with its concentration increasing considerably upon exposure to volcanic activity or atmospheric pollution stemmed from burning fossil fuels or other sorts of market, particularly aluminium smelters.

In plants

All vegetation contains some fluoride, which is taken in from soil and water. Some plants focus fluoride from their environment more than others. All tea leaves contain fluoride; nevertheless, fully grown leaves include as much as 10 to 20 times the fluoride levels of young leaves from the exact same plant.

Chemical properties


Fluoride can function as a base. It can integrate with a proton (H+):.

F − + H+ → HF.

This neutralization response forms hydrogen fluoride (HF), the conjugate acid of fluoride.

In aqueous option, fluoride has a pKb value of 10.8. It is for that reason a weak base, and tends to remain as the fluoride ion rather than generating a significant quantity of hydrogen fluoride. That is, the following equilibrium favours the left-hand side in water:.

Nevertheless, upon extended contact with wetness, soluble fluoride salts will break down to their particular hydroxides or oxides, as the hydrogen fluoride leaves. Fluoride stands out in this regard among the halides. The identity of the solvent can have a remarkable effect on the equilibrium moving it to the right-hand side, considerably increasing the rate of decay.

Structure of fluoride salts

Salts consisting of fluoride are numerous and adopt myriad structures. Normally the fluoride anion is surrounded by 4 or 6 cations, as is typical for other halides. Sodium fluoride and sodium chloride adopt the exact same structure. For compounds consisting of more than one fluoride per cation, the structures often differ those of the chlorides, as shown by the main fluoride mineral fluorite (CaF2) where the Ca2+ ions are surrounded by eight F − centers. In CaCl2, each Ca2+ ion is surrounded by 6 Cl − centers. The difluorides of the transition metals typically adopt the rutile structure whereas the dichlorides have cadmium chloride structures.

Inorganic chemistry

Upon treatment with a basic acid, fluoride salts convert to hydrogen fluoride and metal salts. With strong acids, it can be twice as protonated to give H2F+

. Oxidation of fluoride offers fluorine. Solutions of inorganic fluorides in water contain F − and bifluoride HF − 2. Few inorganic fluorides are soluble in water without undergoing considerable hydrolysis. In terms of its reactivity, fluoride varies significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more highly solvated in protic solvents due to its smaller radius/charge ratio. Its closest chemical relative is hydroxide, considering that both have comparable geometries.

Naked fluoride

Most fluoride salts liquify to give the bifluoride (HF − 2) anion. Sources of true F − anions are unusual since the extremely fundamental fluoride anion abstracts protons from lots of, even adventitious, sources.

Relative unsolvated fluoride, which does exist in aprotic solvents, is called “naked”. Naked fluoride is a strong Lewis base, and an effective nucleophile. Some quaternary ammonium salts of naked fluoride include tetramethylammonium fluoride and tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Cobaltocenium fluoride is another example. Nevertheless, they all lack structural characterization in aprotic solvents. Because of their high basicity, many so-called naked fluoride sources are in truth bifluoride salts. In late 2016 imidazolium fluoride was synthesized that is the closest approximation of a thermodynamically stable and structurally identified example of a “naked” fluoride source in an aprotic solvent (acetonitrile). The sterically requiring imidazolium cation supports the discrete anions and secures them from polymerization.


At physiological pHs, hydrogen fluoride is generally totally ionised to fluoride. In biochemistry, fluoride and hydrogen fluoride are equivalent. Fluorine, in the form of fluoride, is thought about to be a micronutrient for human health, essential to prevent dental cavities, and to promote healthy bone growth. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) is a recognized accumulator of fluorine compounds, released upon forming infusions such as the common drink. The fluorine substances break down into items including fluoride ions. Fluoride is the most bioavailable type of fluorine, and as such, tea is potentially a car for fluoride dosing. Around, 50% of absorbed fluoride is excreted renally with a twenty-four-hour duration. The remainder can be kept in the oral cavity, and lower digestion system. Fasting considerably increases the rate of fluoride absorption to near 100%, from a 60% to 80% when taken with food. Per a 2013 study, it was found that intake of one litre of tea a day, can potentially supply the day-to-day recommended intake of 4 mg per day. Some lower quality brands can supply as much as a 120% of this quantity. Fasting can increase this to 150%. The study suggests that tea drinking neighborhoods are at an increased risk of oral and skeletal fluorosis, in the case where water fluoridation is in effect. Fluoride ion in low doses in the mouth minimizes dental caries. For this reason, it is utilized in tooth paste and water fluoridation. At much higher dosages and regular direct exposure, fluoride causes health issues and can be harmful. [4]

What are the functions of fluoride?

One of the main functions of fluoride is to keep the health of our bones and teeth.

Fluoride plays a crucial function in forming our teeth, by assisting to strengthen our tooth enamel throughout their growth and development. It also safeguards them from dental caries (dental caries), by acting in the saliva and developing a layer over our teeth to lower the damage brought on by acids from foods or those produced by oral bacteria.

Fluoride also assists to enhance the density and hardness of bones, making them more steady. [5]

5 foods that contain fluoride

If you ask your dental professional, they’ll have a lot to say about fluoride! That’s since fluoride uses numerous benefits for your dental health. Did you know that fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral a lot of foods give fluoride? Continue reading for 5 foods that contain fluoride so you can satisfy your fluoride requires from natural sources, too.

Grapes, raisins, and white wine

Grapes are an outstanding natural source of fluoride, which discusses why raisins consist of among the highest concentrations of any food. It’s also among the most versatile foods which contain fluoride. You can consume grapes fresh from the vine, spray raisins on your early morning oatmeal, or take pleasure in an aromatic glass of white wine or grape juice. Simply ensure to keep an eye out for sugarcoated in raisins or juice.


The kinds of fruit that contain fluoride are tremendously diverse and seemingly endless. Apples, strawberries, bananas, peaches, watermelon, and cherries are all on the list. It’s finest to eat fruit fresh to take pleasure in the maximum advantages of the minerals and other nutrients they provide.


Numerous veggies are also a fantastic source of natural fluoride. Spinach and potatoes top the list. Like grapes, potatoes are likewise exceptionally versatile with so many methods to cut, peel, cook, and enjoy them.


Shrimp, crab legs, and other seafood not only produce a fancy supper or appetizer on unique events, but they are also an excellent source of fluoride.

Tea and coffee

Black tea and coffee are both natural sources of fluoride. For an added boost, if your city adds fluoride to the supply of water, try brewing with faucet water for double the fluoride!

The correct amount of fluoride

If you’re wanting to add additional fluoride to your regimen, it can be useful to talk with your dental practitioner about oral products and foods which contain fluoride to assist guarantee that you get the right amount. Fluoride offers numerous benefits for your oral health and your dental practitioner will enjoy to help you find ways to add it to your diet plan and regular so that you get the optimum gain from this remarkable mineral. [6]

System of action

The avoidance of dental caries by topical fluoride is achieved by various systems. Sodium fluoride eliminates bacteria that cause caries, such a Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli by interfering with their metabolic activities that lead to the development of lactic acid. Fluoride ions cause the inhibition of glycolytic and other enzymes associated with bacterial metabolism. It alters the permeability of cell membranes, lowering the pH in the cytoplasm of the cell, resulting in a reduction in acidity, which is typically linked in tooth decay.

When administered at low topical dosages, fluoride in both saliva and plaque and saliva prevent the demineralization of healthy tooth enamel while remineralizing teeth that have previously been demineralized. Sodium fluoride is absorbed by the surface area of hydroxyapatite crystals on the teeth, which are required for mineralization. This renders the teeth more resistant to demineralization by changing the apatite crystal solubility. Sodium fluoride inhibits the demineralization of teeth in a pH-related way. When used in high dosages, in formulas such as the fluoride varnishes or gels, sodium fluoride forms a layer on the surface of tooth enamel. When the pH of the mouth is minimized due to acid production by bacteria such as S.mutans, fluoride is launched, disrupting bacterial metabolic process, and then acts to remineralize the teeth. [7]

What is fluoride used for?

In the context of human health, fluoride is primarily utilized to enhance dental health. You can in some cases find it in your regional water supply and in numerous over the counter (OTC) products, including:.

  • tooth paste
  • mouth rinses
  • supplements

If you tend to get a great deal of cavities, your dentist might recommend utilizing a prescription mouth wash with fluoride. These rinses generally have a greater concentration of fluoride than OTC alternatives do.

Fluoride is likewise utilized:.

  • in medical imaging scans, such as animal scans
  • as a cleaning agent
  • in pesticides
  • to make Teflon, steel, and aluminum products [8]

Health Benefits

All throughout the United States, fluoride is added to public materials of drinking water as a public health measure to decrease cavities, likewise known as cavities. Choices about including fluoride to public drinking water are made at the regional or state level.

Fluoride supplementation has been discovered to prevent the process of tooth decay in babies, children, and grownups. Fluoride exerts this helpful effect on teeth through direct contact, and it also protects developing teeth that are still beneath the gums from the eventual development of cavities.

Fluoride is thought to help avoid dental caries in 2 ways: By preventing bacterial overgrowth and mineralizing the teeth.

Fluoride to the rescue

It’s mainly preventable, but dental caries is the most typical chronic illness in both kids and adults in the United States. Still, the variety of cases has actually decreased over the last 40 years, and many people credit the infusion of fluoride in public drinking water as one contributing element.

Preventing bacterial overgrowth

Fluoride has been shown to decrease the overgrowth of certain germs that may contribute in causing dental caries. Fluoride lowers the pH level in the mouth, making the oral environment more acidic and less hospitable to germs.

Fluoride has actually been discovered to prevent the development of 3 kinds of oral germs: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Mineralization of teeth

Fluoride interacts with the teeth to form a material called fluorapatite, which mineralizes the teeth. Mineralization is a procedure of chemical hardening, an impact that prevents tooth demineralization (breakdown). Surprisingly, while fluorapatite is not a natural component of teeth, it is useful and has not been found to cause any harm to teeth.

The fluorapatite mineralization brought on by fluoride supplements also helps the teeth resist damage that can be triggered by food, beverages, and germs.

In terms of human health and nutrition, fluoride is a trace element, which comprises a reasonably small percentage of the body’s composition.

Small however Mighty

Fluoride is thought about a micronutrient, suggesting that it exists in physical tissues only in little (or trace) quantities, or about 0.1% by volume. [9]

Fluoride shortage

Fluoride deficiency is a condition of the absence quantity of fluoride in the body.


Fluoride is a microelement discovered in trace quantities in the organism. In the body, fluoride consists of the teeth and bones (95% of its total quantity) in the form of calcium fluoride. Fluoride incorporates into the teeth and forms and hardens the tooth’ enamels, produces the acid resistance and resistance to bacteria of the dental cavity. Some scientists recommend that fluoride avoids osteoporosis in females in the postmenopausal duration.

Fluoride is the most bioavailable form of fluorine, this kind of fluorine is seen in the tea, that makes it necessary as a source or fluoride. About half of fluoride is excreted by the kidneys within 24 hr after the absorption.

Causes and risk factors

Fluoride shortage might be caused by the insufficient amount of the fluoride in the diet. However, intake of fluoride in greater amounts might be hazardous and lead skeletal fluorosis (usage of 20-80 mg/day).


Fluoride deficiency triggers the following signs:.

  • Severely formed or weak teeth;
  • Cavities (dental caries);
  • Teeth plaques;
  • Breakable or weak bones;
  • Predisposition to bone fractures;
  • Hip fractures in senior;


Sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate (fluoride-containing substances) are administered topically and systemically to prevent the tooth decay. These compounds might be utilized to fluoridate water and in the production of oral health items. [10]


Extreme direct exposure to fluoride has been linked to a number of health problems.

Oral fluorosis

A fluoride content of 0.7 ppm is now considered best for dental health. A concentration that is above 4.0 ppm could be hazardous.

Direct exposure to high concentrations of fluoride throughout childhood, when teeth are developing, can lead to moderate dental fluorosis. There will be small white streaks or specks in the enamel of the tooth.

This does not affect the health of the teeth, however the discoloration may be obvious.

Breastfeeding babies or comprising formula milk with fluoride-free water can assist safeguard small children from fluorosis.

Kids listed below the age of 6 years ought to not utilize a mouthwash that contains fluoride. Kids ought to be monitored when brushing their teeth to ensure they do not swallow tooth paste.

Skeletal fluorosis

Excess exposure to fluoride can lead to a bone disease called skeletal fluorosis. Over several years, this can lead to pain and damage to bones and joints.

The bones might end up being hardened and less flexible, increasing the risk of fractures. If the bones thicken and bone tissue builds up, this can add to impaired joint movement.

Thyroid problems

In some cases, excess fluoride can damage the parathyroid gland. This can lead to hyperparathyroidism, which includes unchecked secretion of parathyroid hormones.

This can lead to an exhaustion of calcium in bone structures and higher-than-normal concentrations of calcium in the blood.

Lower calcium concentrations in bones make them more prone to fractures.

Neurological problems

In 2017, a report was released recommending that exposure to fluoride before birth might result in poorer cognitive results in the future.

The scientists determined fluoride levels in 299 females during pregnancy and in their kids in between the ages of 6 and 12 years. They evaluated cognitive ability at the ages of 4 years and between 6 and 12 years. Greater levels of fluoride were connected with lower ratings on IQ tests.

In 2014, fluoride was recorded as a neurotoxin that could be dangerous to kid development, together with 10 other industrial chemicals, including lead, arsenic, toluene, and methylmercury.

Other illness

According to the International Association of Oral Medication and Toxicology (IAOMT), a company that campaigns against making use of included fluoride, it may likewise contribute to the following illness:.

  • acne and other skin problems
  • cardiovascular problems, consisting of arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification, hypertension, myocardial damage, heart insufficiency, and cardiac arrest
  • reproductive issues, such as lower fertility and early adolescence in ladies
  • thyroid dysfunction
  • conditions affecting the joints and bones, such as osteoarthritis, bone cancer, and temporomandibular joint condition (TMJ)
  • neurological problems, potentially causing ADHD

One review explains fluoride as an “extreme electron scavenger” with an “insatiable cravings for calcium.” The researchers call for the balance of dangers and benefits to be reassessed.

Fluoride poisoning

Intense, top-level exposure to fluoride can lead to:.

  • abdominal pain
  • excessive saliva
  • nausea and throwing up
  • seizures and muscle spasms

This will not arise from drinking tap water. It is only most likely to take place in cases of unexpected contamination of drinking water, due, for instance to a commercial fire or explosion.

It is worth keeping in mind that numerous compounds are hazardous in large amounts but valuable in percentages. [11]

Fluoride toothpaste

Brushing your teeth completely with fluoride tooth paste is one of the most effective ways of preventing tooth decay.

A series of toothpastes are readily available containing different levels of fluoride. The amount of fluoride in the toothpaste can be discovered on the side of television and is measured in parts per million (ppm).

Toothpastes containing 1,350 to 1,500 ppm fluoride are the most efficient. Your dentist may recommend you to use higher-strength toothpaste if you or your child is at specific threat of dental caries.

  • Kids under 3 years old ought to brush twice daily, with a smear of toothpaste consisting of at least 1,000 ppm fluoride.
  • Children in between 3 and 6 years old should brush at least twice daily with a pea-sized quantity of toothpaste containing more than 1,000 ppm fluoride.
  • Grownups ought to brush a minimum of two times daily with a tooth paste including 1,350-1,500 ppm fluoride.

Don’t use mouthwash at the same time as brushing. Utilize it at an alternative time, because it gets rid of the fluoride in the toothpaste [12]

Fluoride dosage details

  • Mg of fluoride (mg f) each day (2.2 mg tablet of sodium fluoride contains 1 mg of fluoride)
  • Fluoride supplements are commercially readily available in the form of drops or tablets. A sample prescription might check out:
  • Sodium fluoride tablets 2.2 mg
  • One tablet each day to be chewed and swished before swallowing
  • Care: store out of reach of children
  • Supplements offer a topical along with systemic result. The tablets ought to be thoroughly chewed and swished between the teeth before swallowing. The child needs to not eat or drink for 30 minutes after supplement consumption
  • Fluoride levels in human breast milk are less than 0.05 ppm regardless of drinking water and maternal plasma levels. The professional might wish to consider recommending fluoride supplementation in solely breast fed infants in optimally fluoridated locations [13]

What other drugs will affect fluoride?

Some medications can make fluoride much less effective when taken at the same time. If you take any of the following medicines, take your fluoride dose 1 hour before you take the other medication:.

  • An antacid;
  • A laxative; or
  • A multivitamin or mineral supplement that contains calcium, aluminum, or magnesium.

Other drugs might affect fluoride, consisting of prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and natural products. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medication you start or stop using. [14]

What are warnings and safety measures for fluoride?


  • Greater doses are risky and can damage bones and ligaments, and cause muscle weakness and nervous system issues. High dosages of fluoride in kids prior to their irreversible teeth come through the gums can trigger tooth staining
  • Tooth paste and fluoride rinses must not be swallowed routinely, especially in children. It’s a good idea to make certain that kids under six years of age use only a pea-sized quantity of fluoride-containing toothpaste, just in case they swallow some
  • This medication consists of fluoride. Do not take luride, karidium, fluoritab, pediaflor, or sodium fluoride if you are allergic to fluoride or any ingredients consisted of in this drug
  • Keep out of reach of kids. In case of overdose, get medical assistance or get in touch with a toxin control center instantly


Hypersensitivity to fluoride, tartrazine, components of the formulation.

Fluoride material in driving water greater than 0.7 ppm.

Low sodium or sodium-free diet plans.

1 mg tablet in children under 3 years of age or when consuming water has more than 0.3 ppm.

1 mg/5 ml rinse in kids under 6 years of age.


Greater doses are unsafe and can deteriorate bones and ligaments, and cause muscle weakness and nerve system problems. High dosages of fluoride in kids before their permanent teeth come through the gums can trigger tooth discoloration.

Tooth paste and fluoride rinses should not be swallowed regularly, especially in kids. It’s a great concept to ensure that children under 6 years of age use only a pea-sized quantity of fluoride-containing toothpaste, just in case they swallow some.

Pregnancy and lactation

Fluoride may be acceptable for usage during pregnancy. Either animal studies show no danger however human studies are not offered or animal studies revealed small dangers and human studies were done and showed no danger.

Fluoride is safe throughout breastfeeding when utilized in doses below 10 mg per day or elemental fluoride; it is safe in quantities found in tooth pastes, mouth rinses, and fluoride dental treatments. [15]


All organisms are exposed to fluoride from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Extremely high consumptions have actually been observed in locations worldwide in which the environment is rich in fluoride and where groundwater high in fluoride is consumed by people. Increased exposure might occur in the vicinity of point sources. Fluoride in oral items is an extra source for many individuals.

Fluoride has both helpful and destructive effects on human health, with a narrow range between the consumption at which these happen.

Results on the teeth and skeleton might be observed at exposures below those associated with the development of other organ- or tissue-specific adverse health effects.

Impacts on the bone (e.g., skeletal fluorosis and fracture) are considered the most pertinent results in evaluating the negative impacts of long-lasting direct exposure of people to fluoride.

Skeletal fluorosis is a debilitating disability that has a major public health and socioeconomic effect, affecting countless individuals in different regions of africa, china and india.

Consumption of fluoride in water and foods items is the main causative aspect for endemic skeletal fluorosis. In some regions, the indoor burning of fluoride-rich coal also acts as an essential source of fluoride. [16]


  1. Https://www.dictionary.com/browse/fluoride
  2. Https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1068/fluoride
  3. Https://www.dentistjustforkids.com/the-history-of-fluoride/
  4. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fluoride#occurrence
  5. Https://www.eufic.org/en/vitamins-and-minerals/article/fluoride-foods-functions-how-much-do-you-need-more
  6. Https://greenbriersmiles.com/5-foods-that-contain-fluoride/
  7. Https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/db09325
  8. Https://www.healthline.com/health/what-is-fluoride#uses
  9. Https://www.verywellhealth.com/fluoride-health-benefits-4570994
  10. Https://www.medigoo.com/articles/fluoride-deficiency/
  11. Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154164#risks
  12. Https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/fluoride/
  13. Https://www.kenoshacounty.org/349/fluoride
  14. Https://www.drugs.com/mtm/fluoride.html#interactions
  15. Https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_fluoride/drugs-condition.htm
  16. Https://www.greenfacts.org/en/fluoride/fluorides-3/99-conclusion.htm
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