Table of Contents

Caryophyllene, more formally referred to as beta or b caryophyllene, is an incredibly common terpene found in cannabis that is known for its natural spiciness with hints of wood. It is most commonly found in black pepper, cinnamon, and hops. Caryophyllene is a potent component in anti-inflammatory salves and topicals and likewise has prospective anticancer, anti-bacterial, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Caryophyllene is distinct because of its ability to bind to CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system after being consumed orally.

Notable as a dietary cannabinoid, the caryophyllene terpene is a regular natural food additive. Shaded pale yellow, caryophyllene has a sweet taste found in such food products as allspice and fig. Caryophyllene is one of the most completely studied terpenes found in cannabis. Organic chemist and Harvard scientist E. J. Corey studied caryophyllene in the 1960s and showed the terpene’s unique properties. Corey’s pioneering research has actually assisted modern researchers examining caryophyllene’s potentially restorative uses. [2]

Kinds of caryophyllene

Caryophyllene is a special terpene in numerous methods; the molecular structure has three isoprene systems, making it bigger than other terpenes, which just have 2. It also includes a cyclobutane ring, where the shape of the cyclobutane substance is twisted. Cyclobutane rings are rare due to torsional strain (resistance to twisting) and aren’t present in other cannabis terpenes. Finally, caryophyllene can appear in a couple of different ways.


The most typical look of caryophyllene in cannabis and food is beta-caryophyllene, likewise called b caryophyllene or merely caryophyllene. This terpene is the dietary cannabinoid that binds directly with your CB2 receptor.

Caryophyllene Oxide

Caryophyllene oxide is a sesquiterpene or a terpene that arises from the oxidation of beta-caryophyllene. Also referred to as beta-caryophyllene oxide, this terpene is the aromatic component drug pet dogs smell to identify cannabis. It’s naturally present in plants like lemon, oregano, and eucalyptus and is a typical food flavoring.

Trans Caryophyllene

Trans caryophyllene is another sesquiterpene that frequently appears in conjunction with beta-caryophyllene. It has comparable medicinal homes to other terpenes however does not trigger the endocannabinoid system.

Caryophyllene terpenes and the entourage effect

Terpenes and cannabinoids work better together. The entourage result discusses how cannabinoids and terpenes operate in tandem to create distinct impacts in your system.

In the past, drawing out singular cannabinoids like THC was believed to be the very best way to get the most targeted medicinal benefits. But ongoing research study has actually proven the opposite to be real- the mix of substances, known as the entourage effect, is responsible for many of the recovery powers as soon as attributed to singular cannabinoids. That implies the sum of the marijuana plant is greater than the worth of its parts. Taking in full-spectrum cannabis is the best way to enjoy one of the most of what this plant needs to offer.

As the only terpene to communicate with our system as a cannabinoid, caryophyllene plays a significant role in the entourage result. While THC binds with your CB1 receptor, caryophyllene binds with CB2. CB2 activation is known to alleviate some of the less preferable impacts of THC, like anxiety and paranoia.

Caryophyllene research study

Beta-caryophyllene has strong anti-inflammatory homes. It can likewise enhance the efficiency of discomfort medication like morphine.

Beta-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide have anti-cancer and pain-relieving residential or commercial properties, with strong potential to support standard cancer treatments.

Caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide may enhance sleep quality, decrease body temperature level and boost cold tolerance, as discovered in a 2012 study on mice.

Beta-caryophyllene offered discomfort relief from capsaicin direct exposure (the active ingredient in hot peppers) by activating CB2 receptors to stimulate endorphin release in animal research studies.

Beta-caryophyllene might be a lifespan extender due to its regulatory result on mRNA genes controling oxidative tension, longevity, and drug breakdown in the body.

Do terpenes like caryophyllene get you high?

No, separated terpenes can not get you high. But they are essential to the entourage effect we pointed out previously. Caryophyllene engages with THC, CBD, and CBG to develop a distinct experience and prevails in commercially grown cannabis pressures. This terpene is important to the entourage effect due to its unique influence on our systems.

For example, adding caryophyllene to your CBD routine can increase the efficacy of CBD, enabling your body to much better soak up the CBD with smaller sized doses. Caryophyllene likewise increases the anti-inflammatory properties of THC while activating your CB2 receptor for a more well balanced high.

Sources of caryophyllene

Even if you have actually never ever become aware of caryophyllene, chances are you’ve eaten it without recognizing it! Caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid, so usage triggers our endocannabinoid system even without cannabis present. Here are a few familiar dietary sources of caryophyllene:.

Black pepper and cinnamon are the two best-known spices for caryophyllene, however you can likewise discover it throughout your garden in basil, oregano, lavender, and rosemary.

Numerous vital oils include caryophyllene, including clove oil, copaiba oil, ylang-ylang, and black caraway oil.

Caryophyllene has preservative homes and exists in hops used to make beer, vodka, and scotch.

Caryophyllene is utilized in chewing gum to enhance citrus or spicy flavors.

Beta-caryophyllene is a common additive to skincare products, thanks to its effective antioxidant homes.

Which cannabis strains have the most caryophyllene?

The nose knows how to find stress with caryophyllene. These strains tend to have intense scents of diesel, jet fuel, or a general muskiness. Caryophyllene-dominant pressures include:.

Skywalker OG. This hybrid pressure originated in California and has a strong earthy or diesel fragrance. It delivers an euphoric and in some cases sleepy high, perfect for ending your day.

Bubba Kush. This exceptionally popular, indica-dominant pressure has a spicy, frequently woodsy fragrance and provides an extreme, uplifting high that will leave you unwinded and giggling.

Candyland. This golden-haired sativa stress offers a stimulating, mood-lifting experience and works well for controlling pain or muscle stress.

Death Star. The skunky love child of Sensi Star and Sour Diesel is unmissable, with a pungent fragrance of jet fuel and a slow-starting high that will sweep you off your feet. Perfect for nighttime usage.

Chemdawg. This hall-of-fame strain has a strong fragrance of diesel matched by the strength of the high. A smoke sesh with Chemdawg delivers a cerebral experience and a heavy body high, best for forgetting your concerns.

Cookies and Cream. The aptly called sweet hybrid offers long-lasting relief for day-to-day dosing, however a strong hit might have you taking a nap. Cookies and Cream won the hybrid category of the 2014 Denver Cannabis Cup.

Gelato. Likewise known as “Larry Bird,” Gelato owes its sweet taste to a blend of Sundown Sherbet and Thin Mint GCS. This THC powerhouse supplies a strong, euphoric high and discomfort relief. [3]

How β-Caryophyllene Functions

β-Caryophyllene’s several mechanisms of action are still being explored but its obvious dominant action is on the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is a naturally occurring neuro-endocrine network that exists throughout the body, including the brain, nervous system, heart and organs. The ECS regulates numerous physiologic functions including pain, swelling, resistance, appetite and metabolism, intestinal function, memory and motion.

The ECS is a network in which cannnabinoids bind with cannabinoid receptors that are on cells throughout the body. Cannabinoids are substances that are either endogenous (” endocannabinoids” that are naturally produced in the body) or phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis plants such as THC and CBD). When a cannabinoid binds with a receptor, it triggers a physio-chemical action specific to the kind of receptor and the cell it is on.

The dominant system of action of β-Caryophyllene is as an agonist that binds to cannabinoid-2 receptors (CB2) which are present in the brain and nervous system however are mainly discovered peripherally, outside the brain and nerve system. Some think about β-Caryophyllene to be a cannabinoid since it strongly binds to CB2 receptors as a functional agonist although it does not bind to CB1 receptors. β-Caryophyllene oxide (BCPO) and α-humulene, isomers of BCP, do not bind with CB2 receptors and exert their pharmacologic results through various systems.

β-Caryophyllene as a CB2 Agonist

The CB2 receptor is the primary peripheral receptor for cannabinoids and is mainly expressed in immune tissues where it has been revealed to regulate immune cell functions. The CB2 receptor is associated with many physiologic activities suggesting that BCP might use possible for a wide variety of restorative advantages. Of specific note, BCP prevents inflammation and edema and likewise has analgesic impacts.

In addition to its actions at CB2R, other BCP targets includes sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)- α, PPAR-γ, GABAergic signaling aspects, transient receptor prospective cation channel subfamily V (TRPV), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).

Anti-inflammatory Residences of BCP

Growing research reveals that BCP exerts potent anti-inflammatory homes in all body organs, including the liver, kidneys, brain, heart, pancreas, and blood. It suppresses systemic inflammation by preventing pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and other inflammatory mediators.

BCP has actually been acquiring attention for its advantage in lowering inflammation in the lungs via its action on macrophages, especially as a means of lowering the cytokine storm, the huge inflammatory reaction which activates deadly lung damage in COVID. It holds guarantee in other lung inflammatory conditions as well. Furthermore, due to its antiviral and antibacterial activities, BCP may be beneficial for secondary lung infections.

In the intestinal tract, CB2 receptor agonists have been revealed to minimize swelling in colitis, suggesting a possible role for BCP in suoppressing flares of inflammatory bowel diseases including Crohns. The CB2 receptor is also a prospective target for the treatment of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis.

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a persistent liver illness defined by hepatic steatosis (fatty liver), swelling and cell damage. Conditions such as obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, that make up metabolic syndrome, are among the danger aspects of NAFLD. In preclinical animal studies, BCP has a cholesterol (LDL)- decreasing result and also increases high density lipoprotein (HDL), decreasing liver injury and fibrosis, restoring liver function enzymes and enhancing antioxidants, hence recommending a possible advantage for fatty liver disease.

Persistent and Binge Alcohol-induced Liver Disease

BCP likewise decreases chronic and binge alcohol-induced liver injury and swelling in lab studies. Considering its liver protective roles, BCP could be appealing in conditions of liver injury connected with drug toxicity and infection.

Kidney Illness

BCP decreases acute kidney injury in speculative designs by minimizing renal problems and tubular injury, decreasing kidney inflammation, oxidative stress and maintaining kidney cells through activation of CB2 receptors. BCP has shown protective results versus drug induced-acute kidney injury in addition to diabetic and persistent kidney diseases by restoring function and suppressing oxidative tension and swelling. BCP likewise suppresses renal inflammation and oxidative tension by managing NF-κB/ Nrf2 signaling pathways in diabetic kidney illness. This is the same system by which curcumin, catechins (green tea) and other NRF2 activators act, suggesting a synergistic effect possible by integrating curcmin with BCP.


Given the increased risk of lung, liver and renal dysfunction in COVID-19 in addition to the worsening of conditions in patients with chronic kidney or diabetic kidney illness, BCP might be a valuable supplement in preventing organ dysfunction in clients with COVID-19, particularly the cytokine storm that contributes highly to severe COVID disease and death.

Relating to long-lasting issues in some clients even after recovery from COVID-19, offered the tissue protective impacts, BCP could be a prospect to be investigated for possible usage in enhancing prognosis and combating the long-term problems in COVID-19.

Oxidative Stress and the Antioxidant Characteristics of BCP

Besides the immune-inflammatory changes, macrophages and neutrophils produce numerous reactive oxygen species which even more promotes oxidative tension. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a generic term used for a range of particles derived from oxygen that respond with biomolecules by oxidizing them, a damaging process. ROS are extensively believed to trigger or aggravate lots of human pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart problem, cancer, stroke and lots of other disorders.

” Oxidative stress” is an imbalance in the body of excessive “oxidants” (oxidizing or chemically active, agents, consisting of free radicals obtained from the diet or produced by the body) and insufficient “anti-oxidants” (chemically active agents that are likewise obtained from the diet or produced by the body) and neutralize oxidants. This oversupply of oxidants causes damage to biomolecules, (lipids, proteins, DNA), cells and tissue, ultimately adding to aging and numerous chronic illness consisting of persistent swelling, arthritis and pain, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases and stroke.

BCP constructs tolerance against stress by improving antioxidant power. It decreases oxidative stress by combating ROS generation, hindering lipid peroxidation and glutathione exhaustion, free radical scavenging, and enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defense in the tissues of various organs, such as the heart, brain, intestinal tract, stomach, pancreas and blood.

Both oxidative tension and mitochondrial dysfunction are necessary trademarks of the early pathological systems of aging and neurodegenerative conditions, i.e., Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s illness (PD), Multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s illness (HD).

Research recommends that β-caryophyllene has the neuroprotective ability through reducing oxidative stress and stabilizing mitochondria and might cause the discovery of drugs for neurodegenerative disorders. Besides CB2 receptor agonism, β-caryophyllene has been found to favorably manage PPAR-γ, TLRs and neuroimmune pathways, as possible targets linked in the security against neuronal loss.

The offered information is not sufficient to draw any scientific conclusion for the recommendation of β-caryophyllene in the management of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular concerning the most reliable doses, or the possible benefits of β-caryophyllene in targeting mitochondria in neurodegenerative illness.

Other Mechanisms of Action of BCP

It is proposed that BCP likewise uses restorative effects by triggering the nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Additionally BCP also acts on other receptors in the skin consisting of TRPM1, TRPM6, TRPV4, TRPV6 and TRP8. BCP modulates many signaling paths and inhibits inflammatory arbitrators, consisting of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion particles, prostanoids, and eicosanoids. Based upon these pharmacological residential or commercial properties and molecular mechanisms, BCP might have restorative potential to modulate the immune system with anti-inflammatory, organ-protective, and anti-viral homes.

Bioavailability of β-Caryophyllene

Bioavailability describes the percentage of a drug or other compound which enters the blood circulation when introduced into the body through inhalation, through the skin or through intake. Both BCP and BCPO are sesquiterpenes, a class of terpenes with more complex molecular solutions compared to the monoterpenoids (pinene, carene, myrcene and limonene) which adds to a lower solubility in water and biological fluids which in turn limitations BCP and BCPO absorption into cells. This may affect the healing efficiency of BCP and BCPO when consumed orally. This bad water solubility of BCP and BCPO might be overcome with use of liposomal drug delivery systems, which provide much greater bioavailability of these compounds to guarantees acquiring desired healing impacts. Breathed in and topical applications of BCP and BCPO have high bioavailability and should enable their efficiency when administered in these ways.

Metabolism of BCP

The metabolism of BCP and BCPO is improperly understood.

Oral Use of BCP

Studies in human beings are doing not have regarding oral use of BCP for restorative functions although it is “typically acknowledged as safe” by the FDA as a food additive. In preclinical research studies with mice the persistent oral administration of BCP has been shown to lower neuropathic pain, consisting of thermal hyperalgesia (excessive discomfort understanding) and mechanical allodynia (inappropriate perception of pain in response to a stimulis that need to not hurt). BCP likewise decreases spine neuroinflammation, the condition that is the basis of sharp pain transitioning to chronic pain. No signs of tolerance to the anti-hyperalgesic results of BCP over 2-weeks of treatment were identified in the mouse study however, on the contrary, the BCP result ended up being stronger throughout the treatment period. Provided the potentially restricted bioavailability of oral BCP and BCPO, studies are needed to identify efficient oral dosing.

The question to be considered now is what dosage relates to human beings? Based upon an efficient dosage in mice approximated for the human equivalent dosage for a 132 lb adult, the average day-to-day BCP intake would be in the series of 10– 200 mg. This dosage would suffice for substantial CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation. It has actually also been estimated that BCP is commonly ingested with vegetable foods, including spinach and chard, at an approximated everyday consumption of 10– 200 mg. This could be a dietary aspect that possibly regulates swelling. Human research studies are required.

Oral Bioavailability

β-caryophyllene is defined by high lipophilicity and bad stability in hydrophilic media (biological fluids), which restrict its bioavailability and absorption into cells. Bioavailability depends upon the nature and chemical-physical properties of a particle and is primarily due to water solubility (or dissolution rate) and membrane permeability. Drugs that are poorly water-soluble have low bioavailability which impedes their medical application.

Liposomal and Micro-Emulsified β-caryophyllene

Various strategies that include the use of intricate formulas such as micelles, liposomes, micro-emulsified polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanoparticles have actually been approached. Amongst them, liposomes have been the most extensively embraced for natural compounds, such as terpenes consisting of β-caryophyllene, due to their exceptional biocompatibility and biodegradability, low toxicity and lack of immunogenicity. Liposome structure enables the incorporation of different types of drugs: hydrophilic compounds are encapsulated in the inner liquid compartments, while lipophilic drugs are generally entrapped within the lipid bilayer. Other natural substances that integrate liposomal solutions include PEA and curcumin.

Breathed In Use of BCP

Studies assessing inhalation of BCP in mice figured out that after inhalation unpredictable BCP is dispersed into the brain by means of blood flow. It is likewise possible that nasally inhaled BCP may also disperse directly into cerebrospinal fluid as well as blood. Inhaled BCP was likewise kept in mind to distribute mostly to the liver where it may increase the level of glutathione and thereby increase liver antioxidant capacity. It was kept in mind that upon getting in the blood the half-life of BCP was 134 min.

Of interest it need to also be kept in mind that the olfactory nerve receptors believed to be associated with the therapeutic results of nasally inhaled compounds such as BCP are likewise discovered in the intestinal tracts, recommending an alternative mechanism for restorative effect with consumed BCP and other terpenes. Additional pharmacokinetic research studies require to be performed in people however stay doing not have.

Boiling Point of β-Caryophyllene: 266 – (F), 130 – (C).

When vaping a marijuana pressure with BCP one would wish to set the temperature level of the vape device to about 280 ″ (F) to get the most take advantage of this terpene. Temperatures accomplished with smoking cigarettes should be sufficient to allow full schedule of the BCP.

Topical Use of BCP

BCP used topically minimizes discomfort and swelling and is proposed to enhance injuries re-epithelialization and recovery.

Discomfort receptors (nociceptor) end in the skin as sensory nerve endings that are stimulated by direct contact with hurt tissue. There is an excellent range of receptors and inflammatory agents in the skin which contribute in pain reception (nociception). In the skin, sensory nerves interact with non-nerve cells found in the skin such as keratinocytes and mast cells. These non-nerve cells release compounds which stimulate discomfort receptor nerve endings.

Cannabinoid-2 receptors (CB2) exist throughout the skin in nerve cells, immune tissue, hair follicles, sebaceous oil glands, the dermo-muscular layer in the dermis, vascular smooth muscle and are plentiful in keratinocytes. BCP reduces neuropathic discomfort through activation of CB2 receptors.

It is proposed that BCP activation of CB2 receptors minimizes pain sensitization by suppressing the production of sensitizing elements released from surrounding mast and immune cells. Another possible mechanism is that CB2 receptor stimulation triggers regional release of β-endorphin from keratinocytes, which reduces pain by activating regional μ-opioid receptors.

Although it is not clear which receptors are involved in BCP’s therapeutic advantages, BCP likewise acts on other receptors in the skin including TRPM1, TRPM6, TRPV4, TRPV6 and TRP8 along with adrenoceptors, voltage-gated sodium channels, temperature-sensitive short-term receptor prospective ion channels (TTRP), compound P and inflammatory markers such as caspase-1 and interleukin receptors.

Topical BCP and Fascia

Topical application of CBD and BCP has actually been revealed to be really reliable in reduceing muscle discomfort. Muscle pain can be generated from discomfort receptors located in muscle however also in fascia tissues which surround muscles.

Fascia is a thick connective tissue primarily composed of fibroblasts and collagen fibers. Although fascia tissue consists predominantly of an extracellular matrix of these fibrous tissues, there are likewise a number of other cells present: fat cells (adipocytes), endothelial cells of blood vessels, nerve terminals and different moving leukocyte (i.e., mast cells).

Both CB1 and CB2 receptors have been recognized in fascial tissue, suggesting a system of analgesic advantage for muscle with BCP is through its activation of CB2 receptors.

The activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and to increase anti-inflammatory cytokines, and offer an anti-fibrotic activity. Consequen- tly, the CB1 and CB2 receptors of fascial fibrob- lasts could represent a brand-new target for drugs to care fascial fibrosis and inflammation.

Healing Properties of β-Caryophyllene

Our understanding of the restorative benefits used by Carophyllene is based almost entirely “preclinical” research study, which includes research studies performed in a lab (in vitro) and/or animal research studies. Preclinical research study shows that BCP has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-cancer homes and also assists in wound healing. Early research recommends potential benefit for substance abuse of alcohol and cocaine. Sadly, clinical research with humans is still really restricted in all these relates to.

Discomfort and Swelling and β-Caryophyllene

β-Caryophyllene’s anti-inflammatory activity is equivalent in potency to phenylbutazone, etodolac and indomethacin. BCP is typically utilized in topical anti-inflammatory ointments and salves. In contrast to NSAIDs, however, caryophyllene safeguards the stomach lining and has actually been declared to be reliable in dealing with duodenal ulcers in the United Kingdom. Tissue swelling boosts pain experience through the sensitization of pain receptors (nociceptors) which are peripheral nerves that respond to uncomfortable stimuli, and likewise through sensitization of spine nerves which results in enhanced transmission of pain signals to the brain. The resulting allodynia and hyperalgesia of the irritated tissue likewise contributes to the recuperative procedure because pain experience normally goes back to normal levels as the inflammatory action solves.

The anti-inflammatory homes of BCP have been extensively shown in different mouse designs of disease. A recent research study shows that BCP synergizes with curcumin in exerting anti-inflammatory activity in a speculative in vitro model of osteoarthritis, strongly recommending the possible benefit of a dual mix of these 2 compounds for the management of osteoarthritis. This curcumin synergy has likewise been found with the catechins discovered in green tea. Comparable to curcumin, carophyllene suppresses swelling by minimizing levels of IL-1β, IL-6, through activity at prostaglandin PGE-1 and at the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Anti-oxidant activity and Oxidative Stress

Research studies have actually also revealed that β-Caryophyllene and curcumin up-regulates Nrf2 activity to protect cells from oxidative damage. Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2) is a transcription aspect that is associated with cellular actions to oxidative damage and inflammation.

Neuroinflammation and Central Sensitization

Advancement of neuropathic discomfort is accompanied by the activation and expansion of glia cells, immune cells in the spinal cord responsible for the advancement of neuroinflammation. Caryophyllene is thought to be effective versus neuroinflammation by lowering activity of glial cells.

Central Sensitization

Central sensitization plays a pivotal function in the transition from intense to persistent discomfort. Trademarks of main sensitization consist of the symptom of altered pain actions, such as painful hypersensitivity (mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia). Neuroinflammation including spinal neuronal facilitation and the activation of spine microglia and astrocytes plays an essential roles in these processes.

Pre-clinical evidence shows that activation of CB2 receptors prevents main sensitization and its contribution to the symptom of persistent arthritis discomfort. These findings suggest that targeting CB2 receptors might have restorative capacity for dealing with arthritis pain.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

In the gastrointestinal tract, activation of CB2 receptors has been shown to prevent speculative colitis by reducing swelling, suggesting the potential benefit of BCP for use in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Anti-Cancer Residences of β-Caryophyllene

Both sesquiterpenes BCP and BCPO have cytotoxic activities against a number of types of cancer cells consisting of human cervical adenocarcinoma cells, leukemia cancer cells, lung cancer cells), stomach cancer cells and stomach cancer cells. Aside from their direct anticancer activities, BCP and BCPO may also boost the effectiveness of conventional anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin.

Conditions that may take advantage of β-Caryophyllene

β-Caryophyllene: Pain

Early animal research in rats/mice have recognized β-caryophyllene (BCP) as a selective complete agonist at the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). In inflammatory hyperalgesia, indirect pain inhibition through CB2 receptors on mast and immune cells is possibly attained by the decrease of prostanoids or cytokines release, which are responsible for peripheral nociceptor sensitization. Additionally, BCP activation of CB2 receptors on keratinocytes (shallow skin cells) stimulates the release of endogenous opioids, the β-endorphins. When combined with morphine, this supplies an increased synergistic analgesic advantage.

CB2 is critically associated with the modulation of inflammatory and neuropathic discomfort. Based upon animal studies, orally administered BCP minimizes inflammatory discomfort and neuropathic pain. It has actually been shown to show analgesic impacts in neuropathic discomfort connected with chemotherapy, diabetes, and persistent nerve damage. With chronic oral administration of BCP lowers thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and spinal neuroinflammation. No signs of tolerance to these effects after prolonged treatment have actually been identified. This recommends BCP may be highly reliable in the treatment of long-term, devastating pain states although extra studies are needed in humans.

Muscle Pain and Soreness

Postponed beginning muscle discomfort (DOMS) and damage to muscles occurs as a result of intense workout and activity. This muscle discomfort is painful and likewise decreases power and efficiency capacity.

The oral consumption of BCP (Rephyll, see Nootropics Depot listed below) considerably lowered the pain ratings in a research study assessing DOMS which showed that Rephyll has potential for preventing DOMS. The improved recovery of discomfort strength and muscle injury with no side effects showed that the item Rephyll may be an alternative supplement for pain management.


Synovial tissues in joints with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) supposedly have more CB2 receptors than synovial tissues in joints with degenerative arthritis (osteoarthritis (OA), recommending greater efficiency and strength of CB2 activation with BCP in RA clients. Likewise, in RA, neutrophils are found in really high numbers in the joint synovium whereas neutrophils are missing in the synovial fluid in clients with OA. Elevated cytokine levels are thought to play a significant role in the induction of neutrophil infiltration to the synovium in RA and BCP is known to prevent migration of neutrophils.

Elevated cytokine levels are believed to play a significant function in neutrophil seepage to the synovium. Although neutrophils are absent in the synovial fluid in patients with OA, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammatory markers are found in pathogenic concentrations in the synovial fluids. While swelling is a trademark of OA, it is not its cause, unlike RA.

A 2020 placebo-controlled scientific research study, patients with hand arthritis, both RA and OA, applied BCP topically and BCP was found to be safe, well tolerated, and useful in lowering discomfort and inflammation.

β-Caryophyllene: Winter and Wild Giant Pandas

The TRPM8 receptor on sensory nerves in the skin ended up being triggered upon exposure to cold, setting off the sensation of feeling cold. This receptor might be set off environmentally by exposure to cold or chemically by direct exposure to compounds such as menthol. β-caryophyllene inhibits cold-activation of these receptors and suppresses the perception of feeling cold which helps to enhance cold tolerance at low temperature levels.

In fact, studies have revealed that in winter, giant pandas roll in fresh horse manure which is rich in β-caryophyllene as a means of adapting to the cold! As of yet I have actually not discovered studies to evaluate how effective topical β-caryophyllene might remain in people for enduring winter, or lowering the effect of winter on pain. I will be looking …

Diabetic Neuropathy

BCP was administered as dietary supplement made up of a mixture of β- caryophyllene, myrrh, carnosic acid) and PEA to 25 diabetes clients with diabetes-related complications of uncomfortable distal symmetric polyneuropathy. It was discovered to alleviate polyneuropathy discomfort with excellent tolerance and no unfavorable results.

β-Caryophyllene: Paclitaxel-induced Peripheral Neuropathy (PINP)

Painful peripheral neuropathy is a typical negative effects of paclitaxel (PTX), a chemotherapy medication utilized to treat a variety of kinds of cancer. Nevertheless, currently employed analgesics have numerous negative effects and are inadequately reliable. β-caryophyllene (BCP), a selective CB2 agonist, has actually revealed analgesic effect in neuropathic pain designs, but its role in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic discomfort is not yet known. A 2017 study in mice getting PTX indicated that BCP minimized nerve pain sensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia) caused by the PTX possibly through CB2-activation in the CNS and inhibition of inflammatory cytokines. These results recommend that BCP might be useful in dealing with the nerve pain connected with PINP.


Anecdotal reports indicate Copaiba oil (55% BCP) can be used directly on the temples, back of the neck or other places associated with headaches. It also be utilized internally for headaches or migraines, using 3 drops about 3 times a day.

Insulin Resistance, Diet-induced Dyslipidemia and Vascular Inflammation

BCP has been shown to have selective agonistic activity to CB2 receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, especially PPAR-α. A recent 2019 study discovered that BCP decreases likewise actss via PPAR-γ receptors. In rats fed a high-fat diet plan and 10% fructose for 12 weeks, BCP significantly improved blood sugar, dyslipidemia, and vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. It has been suggested that BCP may represent a more powerful alternate with less side effects to pioglitazone, a diabetes drug (likewise called “glitazones”) used to control high blood sugar level in patients with type 2 diabetes.

β-Caryophyllene: Wound Recovery

β-caryophyllene might improve wound healing and lower scarring, although it is not clear whether it does so by means of olfactory receptors or other receptors in the skin. Topical application of β-caryophyllene on cutaneous wounds can enhance re-epithelialization, but β-caryophyllene triggers a number of various kinds of receptors aside from olfactory receptors, so this improved re-epithelialization may be moderated by activating other routes. β-caryophyllene acts on the cannabinoid receptors 2 (CB2) in the skin but likewise on TRPM1, TRPM6, TRPV4, TRPV6 channel receptors, suggesting the possibility of the involvement of these channels in enhancing wound healing.

Peptic Ulcers

BCP given orally at a dosage of 126 mg/day was assessed in clients with peptic ulcer in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Shim et al., 2019). BCP improved dyspepsia signs by decreasing Helicobacter pylori infections, enhancing queasiness and epigastric discomfort, and hindering proinflammatory cytokines.

β-Caryophyllene: Anxiety and Tension

β-caryophyllene reveals promise for treating depression and tension related mental disorders due to its direct binding to CB2 receptors.

β-Caryophyllene: Diabetes and Associated Problems

Preclinical studies show underlying systems of BCP in skeletal muscles, adipose tissues, liver, and pancreatic β-cells that recommend BCP has the capability to increase insulin secretion, insulin level of sensitivity, glucose uptake and decrease glucose absorption. Furthermore it might minimize levels of triglycerides and cholesterol.

Based on the health advantages, low toxicity, fairly safety in human beings utilize with plausible medicinal activity and molecular mechanisms, BCP appears to be a promising candidate for use in insulin resistance, T2DM, weight problems, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications. BCP has possible for usage as an adjuvant to minimize the doses of the presently used medications and synergistically enhance restorative results. Nevertheless, further studies are required to check out these preclinical studies towards using healing benefits in human beings.

β-Caryophyllene: Several Sclerosis

Numerous sclerosis (MS) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It impacts over 2 million individuals around the world although the reason for MS is not entirely comprehended. Nevertheless, studies with MS patients suggest that the demyelination related to MS in the CNS arises from a T cell-mediated autoimmune reaction. Due to growing research study suggesting that some of the constituents discovered in marijuana possess anti-inflammatory homes and might suppress particular functions withing the immune reaction, research study is concentrating on cannabis usage to deal with MS.

In an investigation published in 2017 to evaluate the restorative capacity of BCP in an experimental animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), it was discovered that BCP substantially minimizes both the medical and pathological functions of the animal design. The systems underlying BCPs immunomodulatory effect appears to be connected to its capability to inhibit microglial cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, it reduce axonal demyelination through the activation of CB2 receptor. The study has essential ramifications for clinical research study and strongly supports the effectiveness of BCP as a possible molecule to target in the development of efficient treatment for MS.

β-Caryophyllene: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Research study likewise recommend that CB2 receptors play a significant role in alcohol reward and the CB2 receptor system may be involved in alcohol and drug dependence by means of modulation of dopamine benefit pathways. In mice, β-caryophyllene has actually been shown to lower voluntary alcohol consumption as well as decrease cocaine self-administration. It might for that reason represent a prospective medicinal target for the treatment of alcohol and cocaine abuse.

β-Caryophyllene: Other Possible Therapeutic Advantages

BCP is thought to be a neuroprotective,, antioxidant, and anticonvulsive agent with antiviral and anti-bacterial activities as well as having the ability to improve lipid profiles, reduce endometriosis, and reveal guarantee for interstitial cystitis and protection against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Caryophyllene: Products

Regardless of its appealing biological activities, β-caryophyllene is characterized by high lipid solubility but bad solubility in water-based media such as biological fluids, which limits its bioavailability and absorption into cells. The poor solubility of this terpene in water-based fluids can impede its uptake into cells, leading to irregular therapeutic impacts, thus restricting its application. BCP, upon exposure to air, is easily oxidized.

To conquer its low bioavailability, numerous unique drug delivery systems have been developed. Various kinds of formulas, such as liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanofibers, microemulsions, nanoparticles, micelles, phospholipid complexes, nanocarriers, nanocomposites, hydrogels, and matrix formulas using cyclodextrin, have actually been developed to enhance the solubility, stability, and release pattern of BCP.

β-caryophyllene’s absorption is improved when it is delivered in an oil-based medium but new items have actually been developed in which the β-caryophyllene is enveloped in a fatty layer (liposomal) and/or nanosized to boost its bioavailabity when provided in aqueous media. Examples of BCP items offering these improved delivery systems include Nootropics Depot oral items (Rephyll) and CarolinaCannabinoids CBD with terpenes products including BCP. [4]

Why Use Beta-Caryophyllene For Your Skin?

There are different methods to take in BCP. For example, it’s discovered in various marijuana and CBD products indicating that it can be ingested through inhalation, by using casts or pills and even consumed orally. However, using Beta-Caryophyllene for your skin is a particularly helpful choice for numerous reasons.

Due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory residential or commercial properties, Beta-Caryophyllene can be used to help with various skin issues. As well as potentially assisting with problems such as acne and skin inflammation, it can likewise be utilized to handle cuts, wounds, and general physical discomfort.

The benefit of using BCP skin products is that it can be applied directly to the affected area of your body. These items are specifically developed to make it simple to soak up BCP straight into the skin quickly and efficiently.

BCP skin items frequently likewise consist of other elements that can operate in combination with BCP to offer a larger variety of advantages. For instance, CBD and Beta-Caryophyllene can work particularly well together and are often also combined with other cannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, and other natural ingredients.

How To Utilize Beta-Caryophyllene For Your Skin

Utilizing Beta-Caryophyllene for your skin is exceptionally simple. It’s instilled into different types of skin care items such as Creams, Balms, Lotions, and Sprays. These work similar to routine topical products and make it simple to apply BCP anywhere on your body.

These items come loaded with natural active ingredients that will make it easy for your skin to soak up the advantages. Some are developed to deal with specific concerns whereas others can aid with a wide range of skin-related problems.

For instance, the Dream Feet Instant Pedicure Stick can be rubbed directly onto broken or aching feet whereas the Revive + Repair Work Age Reverse Serum is a facial oil that you can rub into your skin every day. These products include BCP in addition to a variety of other valuable ingredients for your skin.

Other choices are also available and you can add these items to your everyday skincare routine if you wish to try them out on your own. You may even want to combine them with CBD skin care items to get a wider variety of benefits. [5]

Beta-Caryophyllene Scent

This terpene has a spicy and peppery aroma connected with smelling split pepper. Cannabis pressures with high beta-caryophyllene levels are known to be musky and spicy. Some are also differentiated to have a cool profile. It is discovered in hops, cloves, oregano, spinach, chard, cinnamon, rosemary, allspice, thyme, fig, pot marjoram, and Roman chamomile. [6]

Can caryophyllene be harmful?

Caryophyllene oxide is nontoxic and nonsensitizing, and has the distinction of being the part responsible for cannabis identification by drug-sniffing canines. [7]

Health Hazard

Symptoms: This chemical triggers inflammation of the skin.

Acute/chronic risks: When heated to decay this compound emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. [8]


( E)- BCP is frequently consumed with veggie food, and an approximated day-to-day consumption of 10– 200 mg of this lipophilic sesquiterpene could be a dietary factor that possibly regulates inflammatory and other pathophysiological procedures via the endocannabinoid system. [9]


BCP is a plant compound which has actually been demonstrated to possess a great possible application for various pathological conditions, due, above all, to the selectivity towards CB2 receptors, which, in addition to making this sesquiterpene devoid of psychogenic effects typical of cannabinoids, identifies its primary biological impacts. In fact, BCP contrast in the animals the inflammatory process, normal of different degenerative illness, which include main nervous system (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc), steatohepatitis, osteoporosis, but likewise cancer and Streptococcus mutans infections.

However, even if the studies on the molecule are very promising, these are just preclinical (in vitro or in vivo in animal models) and further insights and medical trials are needed for a future human application. [10]


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