Terminalia arjuna, frequently referred to as arjuna, comes from the household of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, high blood pressure, heart disease, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries.It is an ayurvedic treatment that has been pointed out since vedic duration in lots of ancient Indian medicinal texts including Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, and Astang Hridayam. [1]


According to the Mahabharata – among the most respected books of Indian folklore – Arjuna was among 5 brothers and a central character in this ancient Indian epic. Child of the god Indra and renowned for his skill in archery, he was understood for his steadfastness and single mindedness in pursuing his objectives. His loyalty to Lord Krishna made him the magnificent knowledge of the Bhagavad-Gita and the character of Arjuna signifies pureness, stability, commitment and valour. It is stated that the hero of this legendary was called after the Terminalia Arjuna tree because of its protective impacts. The Arjuna herb was known for its role in protecting vigor and was nicknamed “Guardian of the Heart”, displaying similar attributes to the hero of the Indian legend. In Sanskrit the word Arjuna implies “shining”, alluding to the silvery sparkling quality of the outer bark of the tree. Once a year this bark peels away to expose the inner red recovery bark, making it available for harvest without damage to the tree. [2]


Arjuna grows to about 20– 25 metres tall; typically has a strengthened trunk, and forms a broad canopy at the crown, from which branches drop downwards. It has oval, conical leaves which are green on the leading and brown below; smooth, grey bark; it has pale yellow flowers which appear between March and June; its glabrous, 2.5 to 5 cm fibrous woody fruit, divided into 5 wings, appears in between September and November. The tree does not experience any major illness or bugs, however it is prone to Phyllactinia terminale and rot due to polystictus affinis.

Circulation and habitat

The arjuna is seen throughout the Indian Subcontinent, and usually found growing on river banks or near dry river beds in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha and south and main India, together with Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It has actually also been planted in Malaysia, Indonesia and Kenya. [3]


  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Magnoliophyta
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Order: Myrtales
  • Family: Combretaceae
  • Genus: Terminalia
  • Types: T. arjuna
  • Zoological name: Terminalia arjuna

Other names: Arjuna, Koha, Kahu, Arjan, White Marudah, White Murdh, Arjuna Myrobalan, Orjun, Yerra maddi, Sadada, Sadaru and a lot more. [4]

Characteristics of the Arjuna Tree

Arjuna, also called arjun, is a marvelous, deciduous tree that can reach heights up to 100 feet and has been valued for its wood and restorative properties for generations. It grows throughout the damp, marshy, sub-Himalayan areas of India and Sri Lanka, producing clusters of little white or yellow flowers amid its cone-shaped leaves. The most popular part of the tree is its red inner bark, which is appreciated as a tonic for the heart and is thought about comparable to hawthorn in European herbalism. The thick, white-to-pinkish-gray external bark molts naturally once a year and is collected when the trees are mature. Providing the tree time to recuperate and regrow its bark is a key component to sustainable harvesting. Centuries ago, the arjuna tree was offered a name befitting its standard function of safeguarding the heart, similar to its mythological namesake brought perseverance, strength, and protection to his family in battle.The term “arjuna” means “bright,” “white,” or “shining” in Sanskrit, similar to the light-reflective bark of the arjuna tree.


The major constituents of T. arjuna in stem bark, root bark, fruits, leaves and seeds are well identified. The initial phytochemical analysis of existing substances in T. arjuna was carried out according to different basic procedures. As bark was thought about to be the most important constituent from the medical perspective, at first reported that the bark had 34% ash material consisting entirely of pure calcium carbonate. Aqueous extract of T. arjuna is reported to have 23% calcium salts and 16% tannins. Organic extracts of T. arjuna bark were also prepared using the consecutive approaches with a number of organic solvents such as hexane, benzene, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, ethanol, methanol and ether, etc, to draw out different phytochemical constituents. The chemical structures of available substances were verified by numerous advanced strategies like HPLC, UPLC, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.26, 27, 55, 56 Polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponins, sterols and minerals are the significant constituents of T. arjuna. Such amino acids like tryptophan, tyrosine, histidine and cysteine are likewise the main ingredients in T. arjuna. [5]


5 bark powder samples of Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) having various origins including 2 industrial brands were evaluated for 8 small (Al, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Cl, Fe) and 19 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, V, Zn) elements by INAA. Likewise concentrations of Ni, Cd and Pb were determined by AAS and of Sn by ICP-MS. Arjuna bark powder is improved in Ca, Mg, K Cl and Fe with significant quantities of Mn and A number of toxic aspects such as As, Hg and Pb were also found. [6]


Transverse section of fresh bark shows cork composed of evenly organized several layers of small, tangentially lengthened cells. Listed below cork is a region of cortex, made up of thin-walled, basically brick-shaped parenchymatous cells containing cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. A few groups of sclerenchymatous pericyclic fibres are scattered in the cortex. Secondary phloem consists of phloem parenchyma composed of thin-walled, polygonal cells with wavy walls consisting of cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and pigmented cells. Phloem fibers, composed of sclerenchymatous cells, take place in groups and are spread in the form of spots in parenchyma. Narrow and practically straight medullary rays are also present. [7]

Possible benefits

There’s minimal research study on arjunarishta, and the majority of it was performed in animals. Therefore, no definitive conclusions can be made about its effectiveness in human beings.

High in anti-oxidants

Anti-oxidants are compounds that reduce the effects of highly unstable particles called free radicals. Free radical damage is linked to persistent conditions like heart problem, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Many components in arjunarishta, such as T. arjuna, V. vinifera, and W. fruticosa, include substances that function as antioxidants, consisting of flavonoids, triterpenoids, glycosides, and phenolic acids.In test-tube and animal research studies, T. arjuna, V. vinifera, and W. fruticosa anti-oxidants have been revealed to reduce the development and spread of cancers in the stomach, liver.However, it’s unclear whether taking arjunarishta would produce comparable outcomes, as these research studies were performed using focused extracts. It’s likewise unclear whether these benefits would apply to human beings.

May aid blood sugar level control

Animal research study recommends that arjunarishta and its ingredients may decrease blood sugar level levels.In a mouse research study, scientists found that both arjunarishta and T. arjuna extract reduced fasting blood glucose levels substantially more than a control.Similarly, a research study in rats with diabetes found that treatment with a T. arjuna extract for 15 days substantially reduced and normalized fasting blood sugar level levels.Additional research studies in mice with diabetes have actually also found the concoction’s components to substantially minimize fasting blood sugar levels.However, arjunarishta contains jaggery– an unrefined sugar product. As such, while most of the ingredients may help blood sugar control in animal studies, arjunarishta as a whole may be unsuitable for people with diabetes.Human studies on arjunarishta’s impacts on blood glucose management are needed prior to suggesting it for this purpose.

Other potential advantages

Arjunarishta and its active ingredients have actually been connected with other possible advantages, consisting of:.

May minimize cancer threat. Animal and test-tube studies recommend that certain components in arjunarishta might have anticancer properties. Still, human research studies are required in this area.May have anti-asthmatic residential or commercial properties. Animal research study recommends that a few of the blend’s components might have anti-asthmatic properties and help in reducing lung inflammation. Again, human studies are needed.May help aerobic exercise efficiency. A study in 30 healthy young adults discovered that T. arjuna, an essential active ingredient in arjunarishta, improved aerobic workout endurance. [8]

Advantages of Arjun Fruit

Gets rid of halitosis

Foul breath is one of the most common way of life issues that accompany lots of individuals. You would not want to go to your work place having bad breath. Consuming arjun fruit can in fact enhance your mouth odor and can have advantages related to oral health. This fruit has compounds that have healing properties that can even assist your gum issues and bleeding from the teeth. You can really have arjun fruit once every morning to start your day with a fresh mouth.

Makes Bones Stronger

If you are experiencing any type of bone problems, especially that damages our bones, then it can be really effective for you to eat arjun fruit. In the aging, people may feel this bone issues growing with time. Bones of older grownups tend to end up being weaker and that is when you can in fact take full benefits of arjun fruit. You can consume it raw of make a juice out of it. It may even help you with bone conditions like osteoporosis and arthritis. It might not be able to treat it but can lower its signs.

Reduces Teeth and Gum Problems

Oral health plays a really crucial function in identifying the lifestyle, confidence and some other elements. Eating arjun fruit can actually help you lower your gum problems and enhance teeth health. Here are some typical oral issues that could be resolved by consuming arjun fruit in your diet-.

  • Bleeding from the teeth
  • Decreases cavities
  • Tooth pain
  • Discomfort in gums
  • Bleeding gums

You can have this fruit in the form of juice, or raw. You can likewise take in arjun fruit powder and put it in the form of a paste on the location where you are facing gum or teeth problems. However, it is better to consult a medical professional initially and take arjun fruit more as a remedy than a treatment.

  1. Enhances Heart Rate Rhythms

It has been observed that consuming arjun fruit frequently in your diet plan can lower the danger of heart rhythm disorder. This fruit can assist to preserve typical heart rate rhythm that could reduce the danger of cardiovascular disease. You can also have arjun bark powder and blend it in a glass of water with some honey to purify your blood. Arjun fruit hence could be beneficial to improve heart health also. [9]

Extract preparation

The sun dried bark of T. arjuna was given the laboratory and powdered and extracted in water (1:8, after going through 80 mesh size) by boiling (4 h). The extracts were subsequently infiltrated muslin fabric and the filtrate was spray dried. For preparation of water service of T. arjuna extracts, dried powder (500 mg), was dissolved in pure water and then centrifuged (500g, 15 minutes). The supernatants were moved to micro-centrifuge tubes and stored (at − 20 ° C). The quantity of total soluble solids in supernatant was determined using gravimetric analysis which worked as the basis to create T. arjuna concentrations. [10]

Approach of Preparation Of Arjunarishta

The main ingredient arjuna is cleaned and sun-dried. It is then powdered and sieved to eliminate pollutants and solid particles.Separately, the aromatic herbs i.e. madhuka, dhataki and draksha are cleaned up, dried, powdered, sieved and kept aside. The powdered arjuna bark is then immersed in a specific quantity of water and enabled to soak over night. In the early morning, the preparation is then boiled and lowered to 1/4 quantity and travelled through a muslin fabric to eliminate pollutants. Add jaggery to the clear preparation, stir it properly and filter to eliminate solid particles. Now, pour the decoction in a wide-mouthed vessel, add the powdered aromatic herbs to the filtrate and seal the opening of the container.Keep it aside in the fermentation space and permit it to ferment. Keep a check on the fermentation procedure. Once the fermentation is done, filter the fermented liquid through a muslin fabric to eliminate strong particles and impurities. The concoction is then poured in air-tight containers, stored in a cool, dry place and kept for maturation. [11]

What can I use it for?

Arjuna bark affects an increase in levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione levels. This action provides security versus oxidative tension, with a particular affinity for heart tissue. Arjuna also displays a positive inotropic action upon heart muscle, balancing any irregular contractions and promoting a healthy high blood pressure. Arjuna moderates the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis within the liver, enhancing cholesterol metabolic process and also encouraging general hepatic cellular regeneration. Arjuna has demonstrated anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-mutagenic activity against particular stress such as salmonella, E.coli and HIV. In addition, it has also shown the capability to recover harmed and wounded skin cells, and prevent the development of tumours.

Into the heart of arjuna

Arjuna is first and primary a cardio tonic. Arjuna is specifically suggested for all heart based conditions, reinforcing, nourishing and fixing heart and blood vessel tissue. It will influence a reduction in any swelling and congestion that may be impairing heart function but also support any emotional tension and anxiety impacting the organ.The regenerative impact that this herb has on the liver, also makes it incredibly rejuvenative to the liver as an organ, improving general performance and metabolic process, with the included ability of enhancing cholesterol metabolic process. Arjuna recovery procedure with a specific focus upon broken skin and bones and damage brought on by chronic viral and bacterial infection. Arjuna is specifically indicated in angina, heart disease, heart arrhythmia, and hypertension. All have actually revealed indications of improving in human scientific trials. It has actually also been revealed to reduce human total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It minimizes swelling and congestion that can harm the heart. It can be utilized to treat psychological disruption and ‘broken heart’. It reinforces the muscles of the heart in addition to toning the blood vessels and improving flexibility which helps to prevent hypertension. It assists to stabilize the movement of vyana vayu in the heart and manage blood circulation. Arjuna’s affinity for the chest directs it to the lungs and to alleviate productive coughs with massive mucus in bronchitis and asthma. It can also deal with haemoptysis affected by increased heat and swelling. Arjuna enhances liver function and inflammation, making it highly indicated in cirrrosis. Arjuna is useful as an alterative for clearing the skin of swelling common in acne, acne rosacea, pruritus and urticarial.The wound healing capability of arjuna is shown in post-trauma healing of scars, post-operative healing and repairing fractures. It can also be utilized internally and externally for recovery diabetic ulcers.The astringency of arjuna prevents premature ejaculation and uterine bleeding. [12]

How to Take Arjuna

If arjuna’s heart-nourishing powers and variety of other advantages are calling your name, there are a number of ways to integrate this herb into your regimen. To identify the way that is best way for you, merely tune into any specific intentions and trust where your heart is called. And naturally, if you are working with a more complicated health condition, we suggest dealing with an Ayurvedic professional for specific and personalized guidance. On its own. Arjuna can be used on its own for those who choose dealing with a single herb. The most traditional approach for taking arjuna is the powder; attempt drinking it in warm water as a tea. Or attempt the liquid extract for a quickly, practical option.In a supplement. Arjuna is included in a lot of Banyan’s supplements, consisting of Heart Solution, Stress Ease, Women’s Natural Transition, Healthy Bones, and Sugary Food Ease. Topically. Arjuna is a perfect active ingredient for our soothing and soothing organic oils and balms. It can be found in Mahanarayan Oil, Daily Massage Oil, and Breast Care Balm.

Is Arjuna Safe?

Arjuna is typically thought about safe in most situations, making it an all set ally for lots of. That said, it’s constantly crucial to approach the use of herbs with care. [13]


What is the advised dose of arjuna?

Based on scientific research done on the arjuna plant up until now, the following dosages have actually been suggested.

For chest discomfort: 500mg of the powdered bark of the arjuna plant is advised to be taken three times daily, together with the standard treatment for angina for about 3 months.

For cardiac arrest: 500 mg of powdered arjuna bark can be taken 3 times each day along with the standard treatment for cardiac arrest for about 2 weeks. [14]


  1. Arjuna bark being the main ingredient is first of all cleaned and left for drying in the sun.
  2. It is then processed to acquire the end product in a powdered type. Do keep in mind to sieve the powder as soon as to eliminate the impurities or any strong particles.
  3. The other herbs (madhuka, dhataki and draksha) which are utilized will also be cleaned completely and sun dried.
  4. These herbs are likewise processed to form powder. Keep all the herbs independently and sieve them once to clear the possibilities of solid impure particles.
  5. The powdered arjuna bark is then left in water for the soaking treatment for a minimum of 24 hr.
  6. The soaked item is then boiled until the quantity is decreased to less than half. To remove the more possibilities of pollutants, pass it through muslin fabric.
  7. Now include jaggery or gud to the decoction and stir it appropriately.
  8. Add all the herbs and seal the container firmly.
  9. Enable the decoction to ferment effectively.
  10. When the fermentation is done, filter it again utilizing muslin fabric to further cleanse.
  11. It is ready to use and can be stored in airtight containers. [15]

Arjuna bark for skin

The bark of Arjuna is utilized to cure various skin related issues. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial residential or commercial properties that help in getting rid of skin issues.

In Ayurveda, the Arjuna tree has actually been referred to as a bonanza of medicinal residential or commercial properties. Arjuna tree, fruits, leaves and roots are utilized in Ayurveda for the treatment of numerous illness. Let us tell you that the bark of Arjuna is used to get rid of many types of skin related problems. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial residential or commercial properties that assist in getting rid of skin issues. In today’s post, we will tell you which skin issues are gotten rid of by the powder of Arjun bark–.

Dry skin

Arjun bark is a reliable medication for those with dry skin. Its extract helps in retaining moisture in the skin. Along with this, it increases the production of sebum in the skin. Applying a face pack made of Arjun bark on the face gets rid of the problem of dry skin and makes the face glow.

Great Lines and Wrinkles

Using arjuna bark on the face helps in preventing the indications of aging. It has abundant anti-oxidant homes that safeguard the skin from damage triggered by totally free radicals. Using the bark of Arjuna on the skin tightens the skin and gets rid of the problem of fine lines and wrinkles.


Arjuna bark has anti-inflammatory residential or commercial properties, which removes the problem of swelling and inflammation on the skin. Apart from this, using arjuna bark is likewise helpful in the issue of pimples and itching on the face. It cools the skin and removes the problem of itching.


Arjun bark face pack is also an effective home remedy in the problem of acne. It has antimicrobial properties that remove the issue of acne and pimples on the skin. This.


Arjun bark face pack is very efficient for people who have the problem of acnes on the face. Using it on the face removes the issue of acne. In addition to this, the bark of Arjuna is also beneficial to eliminate the dark areas and tanning of the face.

How to make Arjuna bark face pack

  1. To make a face pack of Arjuna bark, take the powder of the bark of this tree.
  2. Now add a spoonful of raw milk or honey to it.
  3. Now apply this paste on the afflicted location of your skin.
  4. After this wash off with clean water after 15-20 minutes [16]

Interactions with Organ Systems


The methanolic extract of Arjuna appears to secure gastric tissue from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Heliobactor Pylori, which is known to induce ulcers. [57] This protective effect has been kept in mind against alcohol (7 day preload), Dexamethasone (10 day preload), and diclofenac sodium (single dose) where 100-200mg/ kg of an 80% ethanolic extract gave outright protection versus ulcer formation from Dexamethasone and alcohol, while 400mg/kg of an acute dose gave outright defense against Diclofenac Sodium. [58] The positive control in this research study, Rantidine (35mg/kg Diclofenac, 50mg/kg alcohol, 4mg/kg Dexamethasone) likewise conferred outright protection, [58] and these protective results versus Diclofenac have been replicated with a methanolic extract and thought to be associated with the anti-oxidative potential.


One study noted that Arjuna extracts, particularly acetonic extraction, had the ability to trigger death of Staphylococcus aureus germs and encompassed Escherchia Coli, Acinetobacter sp, Proteus mirabilis, and Candida albicans; [60] the authors hypothesized that the outcomes suggest that Arjuna may work versus ear infections (although undoubtedly preliminary).


In separated hepatocytes (HepG2), 5-100mcg/ mL of the water extract of Arjuna has the ability to concentration dependently decrease the biomarkers of oxidation induced by TERT (pro-oxidative agent), with complimentary radicals (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) being lowered up to 69% and 62% respectively. [61] The decrease of antioxidant enzymes by TERT was likewise significantly attenuated approximately 60% (SOD), 82% (Catalase), and Glutathione enzymes (62-65% for peroxidase and reductase; fully avoiding any reduction in Glutathione S-transferase). [61] These antioxidant results are believed to underlie outcomes achieved with 50mg/kg water extract of Arjuna for 7 days prior to CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity, where Arjuna considerably avoided the rise in GPT (dosage reliant reductions as much as 50mg/kg, no included benefit at 100mg/kg), stabilized ALP, and increased hepatic levels of antioxidant levels either to control levels (Catalase and Glutathione S-Transferase) or above control (SOD), an effectiveness similar to Vitamin C at the same oral dosages.


250-500mg/ kg of a hydroalcoholic extract of Arjuna bark (not an oral study, however the comparable injected into perfused kidneys) appears to reduce oxidation and concomitantly increase antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Glutathione. A preservation of anti-oxidant enzymes in action to CCL4 is observed to be of similar effectiveness to Vitamin C and has actually noted protective effects in the kidneys of Alloxan-induced diabetic rats at oral doses of 250-500mg/ kg of the water extract.

Particles that are found in Arjuna that have been kept in mind to put in protective impacts on kidney cells consist of Casuarinin, a tannin structure, with more potency than the water soluble type of Vitamin E called Trolox.

Urinary Tract

In vitro, Arjuna appears to be able to decrease development rates of calcium-based kidney stones (calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate checked) with the butanol extract being most reliable.


One research study using arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats noted that 4 days pretreatment with isolated Arjunolic acid can prevent oxidative testicular damange and histological modifications in action to arsenic. This research study noted that, in vitro, the antioxidant capacity of Arjunolic Acid peaked at a focused of 0.4 mg/mL and this appeared to correlated with an oral consumption of 20mg/kg (as 50mg/kg did not give additional protective benefits) and that the overall protective advantage was near outright, and sligtly less effective than 100mg/kg Vitamin C. [17]

Safety measures:

During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: There is no evidence that Terminalia Arjuna is potentially risky during pregnancy & & breastfeeding. Please stay on the safe side and prevent utilizing it during pregnancy.

Bleeding Disorders: It might slow blood clot and threat bleeding and bruising in people with bleeding conditions.

Surgery: Terminalia may disrupt blood glucose control and increase the risk of bleeding throughout surgical treatment. So stop using it prior to 2 weeks before an arranged surgery.


2 years if sealed and keep away from direct sunshine. [18]


The everlasting interest in medical plants has resulted in the discovery of new chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of arjuna. Its effectiveness as an anti-ischemic representative, a powerful anti-oxidant, and an antiatherogenic agent has actually been amply demonstrated in different experimental and scientific research studies. Nevertheless, major lacunae of these studies include the lack of phytochemical standardization of the extract, bioavailability research studies, and properly designed studies to assess its long-lasting toxicity results. Its specific role in primary/secondary coronary prevention requires to be investigated. In addition to this, research studies to try to find the impact of arjuna on CYP450 enzymes and its interactions with other drugs like statin, aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and β-blocker require to be developed. Increasing the awareness concerning its medical usage can provide an instructions to the physicians to react to the obstacles in dealing with heart diseases. [19]


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